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tempering curves

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This appendix provides tempering curves for common grades of steel, including 1045, 1144, 4140, 4150, and E52100. hardness steel temperature tempering curves Fig. A5.1 Tempering curve for 1045 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... of the casting alloy designation. The curves included are the results of measurements on individual lots considered representative of the respective alloys and tempers. The properties considered are yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, elongation, and Brinell hardness. aging response curves aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... Hardness curves are provided for many of the alloys. The hardness values are from corresponding aging response studies in which measurements were made on individual lots considered representative of the respective alloys and tempers. aluminum casting alloys brinell hardness growth curves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Abstract This data set contains the results of rotating-beam reversed-bending fatigue tests for a wide range of aluminum casting alloys. These fatigue curves are the results of tests on individual lots of material considered representative of the respective alloys and tempers. aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter provides a practical understanding of heat treatments and how to employ them to optimize the properties and structures of cast irons and steels. It discusses annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, patenting, carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of the general effects of alloying on hardenability (along with alloying effects on tempering, because most hardened steels are tempered). More information on the effects of alloying may be found in Ref 13 . Hardenability bands are Jominy curves (based on much historical data) that describe...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the tensile and yield strengths fall as the tempering temperature is increased, but the percent elongation, or ductility, increases. Reference 10.1 shows similar curves for several other steels, demonstrating the same trend. Fig. 10.2 Effect of tempering on stress-strain relationship Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... conditions of the common grades and then to discuss failure analysis. For this reason, Fig. 24 shows tempering curves for the most common grades, whose chemical compositions are shown in Table 3 . Fig. 24 Tempering curves for the most common hot work tool steels. Tempering curves are obtained after...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... for tempering time is from 1 to 2 h at heat. Once the heating time cycles are established, tempering temperature is normally used to determine the required change in hardness. The tempering curves for several common induction-hardened 0.45% carbon steels are shown in Fig. 7.5 . These tempering curves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... ( Fig. 4 , 6 ). Curves that show the relationship of tempering temperature and hardness for 14 different carbon steels are presented in Fig. 4 and 6 . All hardness readings were taken at room temperature after cooling from the tempering operation. Also, all data are based on thin sections...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the beginning of tempering, a minimum tempering temperature of at least 150 °C (300 °F) is nearly standard because hardness is not lost from this tempering temperature. Curves that show the relationship of tempering temperature and hardness for 14 different carbon steels are presented in Fig. 2 and 3 . All...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... are primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... in the curves) becomes evident. The mechanism of secondary hardening is explained in Chapter 10, “Heat Treating of Stainless Steels,” in connection with heat treating of high-carbon stainless steels. Specific curves for A2 after austenitizing are given in Fig. 4 . Fig. 4 Hardness vs. tempering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the different types of tool steels by the shapes of their hardness-versus-tempering temperature curves. Figure 14.2 presents the generalized curves. It is seen that as the alloying content of the tool steel increases, a well-developed secondary hardening peak is formed, which has its maximum hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... steels, as compared with carbon steels. This simply indicates the effects of alloy upon softening by increasing temperature; note especially the hardness versus tempering curve for 4340, 4340H in Fig. 3 . Alloy steels also are identified by the AISI-SAE coding system, using the same general...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of tempering temperature on elimination of residual stresses For plain carbon or very low-alloy steels, as the tempering temperature is increased, the hardness (and likewise the strength) after tempering decreases, and the toughness, in terms of impact energy, is increased, as illustrated in the curves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... operating for long periods at 110 to 165 °C (200 to 300 °F) above room temperature. Fig. 5 Tempering curves for carburized and oil-quenched and carbonitrided and oil-quenched steels. Source: J.L. Dossett, Midland Metal Treating Inc., Personal research, 1992 Temperature Hardness, HRC °C °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... the workpiece—after quenching and hardening—in the same coil but under lower power and different time conditions. Sometimes lower frequency (1 kHz) units are used at low power for induction tempering because of the greater depth of heating. Figure 9 shows tempering curves for both induction and furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... stress-strain curves for 43xx steels of various carbon contents quenched to martensite and tempered at 150 °C for one hour. All of the curves show continuous yielding, high rates of strain hardening to ultimate tensile strengths, necking instability, and post-uniform necking elongation to ductile...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... in steels. It is usually done by quenching into hot salt baths and holding for times adequate to produce all bainite. Such times may be found on the CT curves specific to steels of interest ( Fig. 12.3 ). Bainitic steels display superior toughness to quenched and tempered steels at hardness levels...