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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 845 1550 4817H 845 1550 4820H 845 1550 8625H 870 1600 8627H 870 1600 9310H 845 1550 Relationship between tempering temperature and “as-quenched” hardness for several steels for both induction hardening and furnace quenched parts Table 7 Relationship between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...Typical hardnesses of various carbon and alloy steels after tempering Table 7.1 Typical hardnesses of various carbon and alloy steels after tempering Grade Carbon content, % Hardness, HRC, after tempering for 2 h at °C (°F): Heat treatment 205 (400) 260 (500) 315 (600) 370 (700...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Fig. A5.1 Tempering curve for 1045 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A5.2 Tempering curve for 1144 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source: Ref 1 Fig. A5.3 Tempering curve for 4140...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract This chapter reviews the causes and cases associated with the problems originated by tempering of steels. To provide background on this phenomenon, a brief description of the martensite reactions and the steel heat treatment of tempering is given to review the different stages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Most quenched steels are tempered because the toughness of as-quenched steels is generally very poor. The tempering operation sacrifices strength for improvements in ductility and toughness. This chapter discusses the tempering process, the challenge of tempered martensite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Fig. 10.15 (Part 1) Tempering of a 1% C hypereutectoid steel. 1.05C-0.24Si-0.25Mn (wt%). (a) Austenitized at 850 °C, water quenched, tempered at 500 °C for 1 h. 370 HV. Picral. 1000×. (b) Austenitized at 850 °C, water quenched, tempered at 500 °C for 48 h. 355 HV. Picral. 1000×. (c...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract Steel heated in contact with air at temperatures in the tempering range takes on various temper colors due to the formation of a thin oxide film. This appendix provides information on the cause and source of oxidation of steel and time-temperature effect on SAE 1035 steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides information on temper designations for strain-hardened aluminum, heat treatable aluminum alloys, and annealed aluminum products. aluminum aluminum alloys annealing strain hardening temper designation THE TEMPER DESIGNATION SYSTEM used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...Abstract Abstract Steels with martensitic and tempered martensitic microstructures, though sometimes perceived as brittle, exhibit plasticity and ductile fracture behavior under certain conditions. This chapter describes the alloying and tempering conditions that produce a ductile form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... the tempering temperature used after quenching. Full annealing Heating 30–50 °C (55–90 °F) above Ac 3 for hypoeutectoid steels, then furnace cooling through the critical temperature range at a specified cooling rate. The aim is to break the continuous carbide network of high-carbon steels. It improves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... here are primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses ferrous metals, including low-carbon steels, stainless steels, and cast irons. It also provides information on hardening and hardenability and the tempering process. hardening tempering ferrous metals hardenability Jominy end-quench testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the types, methods, and advantages of heat treating procedures, including annealing, normalizing, tempering, and case hardening. It describes the iron-carbon system, the formation of equilibrium and metastable phases, and the effect of alloy elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of alloy steels, providing information on hardening, transformation of austenite, hardenability testing, and tempering of as-quenched martensite. austenite transformation automobile industry chromium steels hardenability testing hardening nickel steels nickel-chromium alloy steels tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Tempering colors Table 10.3 Tempering colors Straw 220 °C 430 °F Dark yellow 240 °C 465 °F Red brown 260 °C 500 °F Violet 280 °C 535 °F Blue 300 °C 570 °F Gray blue 320 °C 610 °F Main steel families according to AISI and SAE classification Table 10.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... be induction hardened and on process details involved in induction hardening gears. It discusses the processes involved in heating, quenching, and tempering of gears. Information on surface hardness and case depth after induction hardening, induction hardening problems, the applications of induction hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., such as ductility, formability, and machinability. This chapter discusses various heat treatment processes, namely annealing, stress relieving, normalizing, spheroidizing, and hardening by austenitizing, quenching and tempering. It also discusses two types of interrupted quenching processes: martempering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... and annealing, normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. This chapter discusses the processes involved in the through-hardening of gears. It provides information on designing procedures, hardness, distortion, and applications of the through-hardened gears. The chapter presents a case history...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... or configuration does not lend itself to carburizing and quenching the entire part. This chapter focuses on the processes involved in the induction and flame hardening, covering the applicable materials, hardening patterns, preheat treatment, quenching, tempering, surface hardness, case depth, hardening problems...