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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract Induction hardened steels are often tempered to increase their ductility and relieve quenching stresses. During tempering, martensitic microstructures supersaturated with carbon decompose into a more stable, ductile form. This chapter discusses the transformations associated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This appendix provides tempering curves for common grades of steel, including 1045, 1144, 4140, 4150, and E52100. hardness steel temperature tempering curves Fig. A5.1 Tempering curve for 1045 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Most quenched steels are tempered because the toughness of as-quenched steels is generally very poor. The tempering operation sacrifices strength for improvements in ductility and toughness. This chapter discusses the tempering process, the challenge of tempered martensite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This chapter reviews the causes and cases associated with the problems originated by tempering of steels. To provide background on this phenomenon, a brief description of the martensite reactions and the steel heat treatment of tempering is given to review the different stages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... precipitation, the decomposition of retained austenite, and recovery and recrystallization. It also includes images that reveal the characteristic structures produced by tempering medium-carbon hypoeutectoid and hypereutectoid steels as well as the effects of plastic deformation, austenitic grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
...Carbides claimed to have formed during tempering of plain carbon steels Table 5-1 Carbides claimed to have formed during tempering of plain carbon steels Designation Name and structure Composition η, eta orthorhombic Fe 2 C (a) (b) (c) χ, chi Hägg carbide monoclinic Fe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract Steel heated in contact with air at temperatures in the tempering range takes on various temper colors due to the formation of a thin oxide film. This appendix provides information on the cause and source of oxidation of steel and time-temperature effect on SAE 1035 steel. In addition...
Image
Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 24 Tempering curves for the most common hot work tool steels. Tempering curves are obtained after hardening small (25 mm, or 1 in.) specimens of all materials with the usual hardening temperature: 1020 °C for H13, TENAX300 (brand name of low-silicon H11), and VHSUPER (brand name of high More
Image
Published: 01 August 2015
Fig. 7.3 Decrease in hardness with increasing tempering temperature (1 h tempering time) for carbon steels of various carbon contents. Source: Ref 3 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 5.20 Influence of tempering on microcracking. (a) Effect of tempering temperature on the number of cracks per unit volume. (b) Effect of tempering temperature and time on S v , microcrack area per unit volume of specimen. Source: Ref 41 , 42 More
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 27 Relationship of hardness, tempering temperature, and tempering time for a medium-alloy die steel More
Image
Published: 31 December 2020
Fig. 11 Tempering curves corresponding to austenitizing temperature and tempering time. (a) Typical W1 carbon and low-alloy tool steels. HRC 50, 370 °C (700 °F), 2 hours. (b) Typical M2 high-alloy tool steels with secondary hardening. HRC 66, 540 °C (1000 °F), 2 hours More
Image
Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 8-15 Length changes on tempering a high-carbon L2 tool steel. Tempering time is considered to begin 1.5 h after quenching. Source: Ref 13 More
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Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 14-30 Relationship between the tempering time and the tempering temperature required to produce maximum secondary hardness and to complete the transformation of retained austenite on cooling from the tempering temperature for T1 high-speed steel oil quenched to room temperature from 1290 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 10-7 (Part 4) Chart showing relationship of tempering parameter to tempering temperature and time. More
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Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 5-6 The effect of tempering temperature (no tempering time given) on the tensile mechanical properties of plain carbon steels. (Adapted from Modern Steels and Their Properties , Handbook 3310, Bethlehem Steel Corp., Bethlehem, PA, Ref 8 ) More
Image
Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 5-41 Tempering curves for iron-carbon alloys. The tempering time was one hour, and the starting microstructure was martensite, except for the higher carbon steels which contained some retained austenite. (From R.A. Grange, C.R. Hribal, and L.F. Porter, Met. Trans ., Vol 8A, p 1775 (1977 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1996
Fig. 5-42 Base tempering curves (one hour tempering time) from the data in Fig. 5-41 . (From R.A. Grange, C.R. Hribal, and L.F. Porter, Met. Trans ., Vol 8A, p 1775 (1977), Ref 21 ) More