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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in the heat treatment of steel, namely austenitizing, hardening, quenching, and tempering. It begins with an overview of austenitizing of steels by induction heating, followed by a discussion on the processes involved in transformation of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This includes various methods namely, annealing, normalizing, and hardening by quenching and tempering. This chapter focuses on general heat treatment procedures and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter provides a practical understanding of heat treatments and how to employ them to optimize the properties and structures of cast irons and steels. It discusses annealing, normalizing, quenching, tempering, patenting, carburizing, nitriding, carbonitriding, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... steels, providing information on hardening, transformation of austenite, hardenability testing, and tempering of as-quenched martensite. austenite transformation automobile industry chromium steels hardenability testing hardening nickel steels nickel-chromium alloy steels tempering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract Induction hardened steels are often tempered to increase their ductility and relieve quenching stresses. During tempering, martensitic microstructures supersaturated with carbon decompose into a more stable, ductile form. This chapter discusses the transformations associated with the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This appendix provides tempering curves for common grades of steel, including 1045, 1144, 4140, 4150, and E52100. hardness steel temperature tempering curves Fig. A5.1 Tempering curve for 1045 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... that the workpieces need to be cleaned before furnace tempering. Finally, after tempering, unless the workpieces are processed in-line in a manufacturing cell, some sort of rust protection is advisable. With in-line processes, the necessity for cleaning and rust protection depends on the other in-line...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Picral etchants define pearlite and show the ferrite (the decarburized area) as white. The nital etchants that are used for defining induction-hardened cases will not define decarburization very well unless the workpieces are tempered at a sufficiently high temperature to produce dark, tempered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... products. The initial applications involved hardening of the surfaces of round steel parts such as shafts. Subsequent surface-hardening techniques were developed for other parts whose shapes are not so simple. Most recently, induction-hardening and tempering techniques have been developed for purposes of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005871 8. Samuels L.E. , Light Microscopy of Carbon Steel , ASM International , 1999 9. Weiss K. , Induction Tempering of Steel , Adv. Mater. Process. , Aug 1999 10. Materials Selection and Design , Vol 20 , ASM Handbook , ASM International...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... problem because proper procedures call for tempering if the workpiece is over the specified hardness. The balance of this Chapter focuses on the typical types of defects found during induction heat treating and possible remedies. Inspection normally starts with first article inspection, followed by a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... This includes thermal processes such as annealing, normalizing, quench and tempering, or carbon restoring. The next step in analysis is to determine whether the specified hardness can be produced. Figure 11.2 shows the relationship between carbon content and the hardness range that can be...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... bodies was developed during the Korean War. These were the striking end of the air-to-air missiles. The bodies required a soft nose to allow collapse on impact, to explode the missile. The requirement was for the body to be hard but the nose totally soft. At that time induction tempering did not produce...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... 11. Semiatin S.L. and Stutz D.E. , Induction Heat Treating of Steel , American Society for Metals , 1986 12. Induction Tooling , unpublished data 13. Weiss K. , Induction Tempering of Steel , Adv. Mater. Process. , Aug 1999 Selected Reference...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... polymer-water–based quenchants. Soluble oil-water quenchants produce a quenching rate similar to that of water but are very difficult to use and produce inconsistent results. Oil-in-water emulsions are effective as a final coolant for tempered parts to provide a black surface and rust protection ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... burns (grinding burns). These are localized areas in which the martensite is heated during cutoff to a high enough temperature for tempering. The wheel burns will produce low hardness readings, and they may be detected by etching as described later in this Chapter. Figure 12.6 lists the procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., such as is required for induction tempering or induction austenitizing. The rates and efficiencies of heating depend on the physical properties of the workpieces as they are being heated. These properties are temperature dependent, and the specific heat, magnetic permeability, and resistivity of metals...