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temperature gradient

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.22 A steel with 0.14% C subjected to a temperature gradient of 4 K/mm and cooled through its solidification range with a rate of 20 K/min. Confocal laser microscopy. Between times (a) t = 0 and (b) t = 1/30 s, corresponding to 1495 °C (2725 °F), the peritectic reaction was completed More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.23 A steel with 0.14% C subjected to a temperature gradient of 4 K/mm and cooled through its solidification range with a rate of 10 K/min. Confocal laser microscopy. Between times (a) t = 0 and (b) t = 1/30 s, it is possible to follow the peritectic reaction. At (c) 2/30 s the reaction More
Image
Published: 01 July 1997
Fig. 7 Variation of weld microstructure as function of temperature gradient, growth rate, and combinations of these variables ( GR , G / R ). Source: Ref 1 and 3 More
Image
Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 9.35 Comparison of cooling rates and temperature gradients as workpieces pass into and through the martensite transformation range for a conventional quenching and tempering process and for interrupted quenching processes. (a) Conventional quenching and tempering processes that use oil More
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.5 Temperature gradients through the inner oxide scale, tube wall, outer oxide scale, and ash/slag deposits. Source: Ref 12 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... grains and the process by which they form. It describes how cooling rates, temperature gradients, and local concentrations influence the topology of the crystallization front, and how they play a role in determining the morphology and dispersion degree of the grains observed in cross sections of cast...
Image
Published: 01 December 2016
Fig. 1.5 Local temperature field at a particular crystallite growth front. (a) Zone of the directional dendrite solidification, heat transfer by solid phase, positive temperature gradient in the liquid alloy. (b) Zone of solidification of the equiaxed grains, heat transfer by liquid phase More
Image
Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 5.6 Schematics showing microstructure of solid-liquid interface for different modes of solidification and the temperature gradients that generate each mode; <100> is the preferred crystallographic growth direction. X L is the distance into the liquid that is ahead of the solid More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.15 Simplified scheme showing directional solidification of an alloy from the mold surface. In the region between x s and x l , temperatures are between T s and T l , and the solid phase fraction varies from 1 to 0. When the temperatures associated with the actual temperature gradient More
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Published: 01 March 2012
Fig. 6.18 Nickel distribution after peritectic reaction in a steel containing 4 wt% Ni. The temperature gradient was 60 K/cm. Calculations were made at different solidification rates. The dotted line shows the nickel distribution at the start of the peritectic reaction. δ, primary ferrite; γ More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... between casting and welding including: Dynamic nature of welding process Unknown pool shape Epitaxial growth Variations in temperature gradient and growth rates within the pool In solidification mechanics, the important parameters that influence microstructure are temperature gradient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... Grinding Cold working/forming Allows uniform volumetric growth Heat-up rate Behaves similar to preheat Rapid heating causes stress relief in thin sections but not in thick sections Local temperature gradients, causing unequal volumetric growth Temperature uniformity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, x 0 , has a positive temperature gradient, heat is removed from the liquid by conduction through the growing solid. Since the temperature gradient is linear and uniform perpendicular to the interface, a smooth interface is maintained, and the growth is planar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in the liquid: planar, cellular, or dendritic. As shown in Fig. B.1 , the type of growth is controlled by the manner in which heat is removed from the system. When the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface has a positive temperature gradient, heat is removed from the liquid by conduction through...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... The composition of the molten metal is similar to that of the base metal. There are large temperature gradients across the melt. The weld metal shape is influenced by both the resultant heat and fluid (or metal) flow. Significant turbulence (i.e., good mixing) takes place in the molten pool. The heat input...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... effect is based on the generation of an electromotive force by temperature gradients at junctions composed of two different materials (e.g. aluminum-tungsten) [10] . The Seebeck voltage induced when one side of a thermocouple is heated is given by: (4) Δ V = ( Q 1 − Q 2 ) Δ T = Q...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... die temperature was 300 °F (150 °C). At the end of the cylinder upsetting, there was quite a temperature gradient inside both the upset cylinder (or pancake) and the dies. The temperature range of the pancake at the end of upsetting was 1044 to 1819 °F (560 to 990 °C). The temperature range...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... W/m 2 · K) and radiation (~76.6 W/m 2 · K) coefficients, and this mode of heat transfer (convection and radiation) becomes negligible. There is a through-thickness temperature gradient in the blank due to the difference in heat loss rates from the top and bottom. This thermal gradient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... properties are the response of a material to heat energy. As a solid absorbs heat energy, its temperature rises and its dimensions increase. If a temperature gradient exists, energy will be transported from the hotter to the cooler regions of the metal. If enough thermal energy is supplied, the metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Temperature and deformation gradients developed in the course of manufacturing can have undesired effects on the microstructures along their path; the two most common being residual stress and distortion. This chapter discusses these manufacturing-related problems and how they can be minimized...