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temperature distribution models

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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 10.31 Modeled temperature distribution in commercially pure titanium after upset. The temperature varies from 595 °C (1100 °F) at “A” at the top center to over 815 °C (1500 °F) at “E,” representing most of the pancake. The isotherm represented by “A” for the die shows that its surface More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... design Eyring models failure analysis outlier screening power law models quality reliability statistical distribution Although failure analysis serves to determine the cause and impact of failures with an eye to appropriate corrective action, it is worth noting that this activity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
...Severity of quench values (H) and film coefficients for several quenchants Table 9-1 Severity of quench values (H) and film coefficients for several quenchants Quenchant Quenchant temperature Quenchant velocity Grossmann number, ( H = h /2 k ) Effective film coefficient °C °F m...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... stresses and temperatures so that: Premature tool failure can be avoided. The appropriate forging machines can be selected for a given application. Process modeling of closed-die forging using finite-element modeling (FEM) has been applied in aerospace forging for a couple of decades [ Howson...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... been done on temperature model and temperature distribution during extrusion. One of the current and simple finite difference models is discussed in this section. A modified model for the temperature rise in an aluminum billet during extrusion with friction is presented by Saha ( Ref 14 ). The model...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... of the workpiece material Production of more complicated parts Know-how accumulation for new materials Press repeatability In sheet metal forming, modeling can be used for many purposes, such as predicting material flow, stress, strain, and temperature distribution; estimating forces; predicting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... be simulated accurately in a very short time. Figure 6.4 shows the temperature distribution at the end of a coupled deformation and heat transfer modeling of a Ti-64 cylinder upset test in a hydraulic press. The starting temperature of the Ti-64 workpiece was 1750 °F (955 °C), and the starting tool steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... This method, with experience, can deliver fast and relatively accurate prediction of loads and velocity distributions [ Kobayashi et al., 1989 ]. All of the above highlighted methods of analysis fail to consider temperature gradients, which are present in the deforming material during hot forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... temperature There are additional modeling activities that are relevant to cold spray research but are aimed at problems different from the aforementioned objectives. Examples include modeling of substrate heating and buildup of residual stresses in cold spraying ( Ref 3.6 ). This chapter focuses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
...] Investigate the distributions of thermal vibration energy at low temperature ( T = Θ E / 2 ) and high temperature ( T = 2 Θ E ) according to the Einstein model. [Answer] The fraction of the oscillators in the n th energy level can be obtained as follows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
.... The objective is to predict the sheet thickness distribution, necking failure, and local degree of hardness in the final part. The process steps involve: Heating of the blank to 940 °C (1720 °F) Transport from the oven into the tool (6.5 s) Forming of part geometry in the tool (1.6 s) Temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in inoculated cast irons cooled at moderate rates. This distribution of graphite is associated with significant nucleation and solidification close to the equilibrium eutectic temperature (hence, low to moderate undercooling). Distribution “B” of graphite is associated with low nucleation. For this reason...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... temperatures sufficient to make the workpiece and tooling glow red, yellow or white; nascent material extruding between surface grains will expose hot oxide-free metal; and a host of other complications exist. It was mentioned above that it is common to use a macroscopic view that models friction with one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... General solution models include the ideal and nonideal models. Ideal Solution Model The simplest solution model is an ideal substitutional solution, which is characterized by the random distribution of components on a lattice with an interchange energy equal to zero. Nonideal Solutions—Regular...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... (specific heat) of a solid solution with A:B = 1:1 according to CuZn type of ordering by the B-W-G model. [Answer] Because the heat capacity is the differential of the enthalpy H by the temperature T , it can be expressed according to Eq 7.12 and 7.16 . (Eq 7.17) ( Δ C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the factors that must be considered when selecting a lubricant for sheet metal forming operations. It begins with a review of lubrication regimes and friction models. It then describes the selection and use of sheet metal forming lubricants, explaining how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... compared with that in flow pattern A. The extrusion has nonuniform properties compared with that in flow pattern A. Flow pattern C is obtained with billets having inhomogeneous material properties or with a nonuniform temperature distribution in the billet. Materials undergo more severe shear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., and the time and temperature (that is, aging storage conditions) after the molding process. Thermal Stress Distribution Thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, and the variation of mechanical properties with temperature are factors that engineers need to be familiar with in working thermal stresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., with the attachment constraints. Figure 2.3 is a schematic illustrating the inputs and outputs of the finite element analysis (FEA). Fig. 2.3 Design concept model and stress analysis The inputs to the analysis are the loads and constraints. The output of the stress distribution in the component helps...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., the distribution of stresses was of more significance, followed by the value of the residual stresses. Models of surface layers described in literature are difficult to implement in industrial practice. There appears to be a need for the creation of such a model of the surface layer. This could be described...