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temperature dependence

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... on several applications of the latter. The chapter also provides information on the temperature dependence of diffusion, intrinsic diffusion coefficients (Kirkendall effect), and high diffusion paths. diffusion interstitial diffusion substitutional diffusion Fick’s laws of diffusion intrinsic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... The discussion also provides information on time-temperature dependence in induction heating, workpiece distortion in induction surface hardening, residual stresses after induction surface hardening and finish grinding, and input and output control of steel for induction surface hardening of gears. References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... to their electrical resistance and how it affects temperature dependent properties such as resistivity and specific heat and, in turn, heating rates and efficiencies. It also discusses the effect of hysteresis and explains why eddy currents tend to be confined to the outer surface of the workpiece, a phenomenon known...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... of short-time tests at high stresses, then the values at lower stresses (longer times) can be obtained by extrapolation and the long-time creep curves under low-stress conditions can be readily predicted by substituting the θ values in Eq 3.6 . Stress and Temperature Dependence Of all...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Creep occurs in any metal or alloy at a temperature where atoms become sufficiently mobile to allow the time-dependent rearrangement of structure. This chapter begins with a section on creep curves, covering the three distinct stages: primary, secondary, and tertiary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... approximately 5 to 150 μm 2 /s, a factor of 30 (or 2900%—a very large change!). Figure 7.5 uses Eq 7.1 to calculate how long it will take a carbon atom to diffuse a distance of 1 mm in austenite (1 mm = 1000 μm = 0.04 in.). Again, the strong temperature dependence is obvious, as the time drops from 9.3 h...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... by the thermodynamic stability of austenite at high temperatures and the thermodynamic forces that drive austenite transformation to more stable, lower-energy microstructures on cooling. The transformations to lower-energy microstructures are dependent on kinetic factors, such as processing times and temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in the formation of cracks and fissures or may simply decarburize the steel, resulting in a loss in strength of the alloy. This form of damage is temperature dependent, with a threshold temperature of approximately 200 °C (400 °F). Blistering occurs predominantly in low-strength alloys when atomic hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., as characterized by its diffusion coefficient, is temperature-dependent. One equation that has been developed ( Ref 4.8 ) to show the temperature dependence of carbon diffusion in austenite is: (Eq. 4.3) D C γ = 0.12 − 32 , 000 / R T where D C γ is the average diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... temperature, almost all of the donor electrons are promoted. In this case, the conductivity primarily is by donor electrons; their number is approximately the number of group V atoms per volume, and the semiconductor is n-type (negative carriers). Figure 4.10 shows the temperature dependence in this case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., clamped together, and annealed at the temperature of interest. Depending on the initial materials, various protective atmospheres can be used (e.g., vacuum and inert gas). After the heat treatment, quenching of the sample is desirable in order to freeze the high-temperature equilibrium. Sometimes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the final microstructure, it is not apparent by which mechanism β has formed. In any case, all three of the mechanisms require some undercooling, because the driving force is zero at the peritectic temperature. The time dependence is pronounced for the peritectic transformation. Therefore, the amount of β...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... the required fine grain size. Even though the ductility of hot-pressed polycrystalline block is relatively low, at least it is nearly isotropic. The temperature dependence of tensile, yield strength, and elongation of normal-purity hot pressed beryllium block is illustrated in Fig. 13.11 . The influence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... ”, Appl. Phys. Lett . 40 ( 1982 ), p. 782 . 10.1063/1.93258 [21] Bhaumik M. , “ Quenching and Temperature Dependence of Fluorescence in Rare-Earth Chelates ”, J. Chem. Phys. , Vol. 40 , ( 1964 ), p 3711 . 10.1063/1.1725078 Many defects generate excessive heat during operation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... ductility of a material as a function of temperature and strain rate for a relatively severe stress state. A range of test data for different stress states from tensile tests, disk tests, and notched beams is used to predict part deformation and potential ductile-to-brittle behavior. For time-dependent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... temperatures, materials under stress may deform slowly. Such time-dependent deformation is called creep. Figure 3.8 shows that the rate of creep increases with increasing stress and temperature. Fig. 3.8 Increased stress and increased temperature cause faster creep Failures may occur under...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
.... The continuous time-temperature transformation curve illustrates the microstructural evolution of a particular material, depending on the cooling rate. To reach tensile strength up to 1600 MPa (230 ksi) of the final part, a complete transformation of the austenitic to martensitic microstructure is required...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Figure 8.4 is a plot of the viscosities of several glass compositions as a function of temperature. Above the glass transition temperatures, there is a strong temperature dependence of the viscosity. Fig. 8.4 Temperature dependence of viscosity for several glasses. The “working range...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and longitudinal directions. Upper and lower yield strengths are present throughout the entire temperature range [ Borch 1979 ]. (The prefix HP refers to a VHP product.) Fig. 17.13 Temperature dependence of yield and ultimate tensile strengths of HP21 beryllium. Source: Borch 1979 Fig. 17.14...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... dependence of polymers is very temperature-dependent. Well below their glass transition temperature, glassy or semicrystalline polymers are only very weakly viscoelastic. For these polymers, test data based on a time-independent analysis will probably be adequate. As the temperature is increased, either...