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temperature control

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... material. From R. C. McMaster, et al., Metals Handbook , 8th Ed., Vol 11, ASM, Metals Park, OH, 1976, p 93 ( Ref 12 ) Fig. 7.8 Block diagram illustrating use of position-proportioning control and servomotor for temperature control. From Anon., Lepel Review , Vol 1, No. 3, 1960 ( Ref 8...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
..., and explains how it can be modified through temperature control or alloy additions to improve properties such as tensile strength and plasticity and reduce shrinkage. cast aluminum-silicon alloys grain morphology microstructure phase constituents solid solution 1.1 Phase Constituents of Cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Abstract Abstract The temperature and atmosphere conditions must be precisely controlled in order to achieve the desired metallurgical results during heat treating operations. In order to ensure the repeatability of operation, a heat treating system must have the necessary sensors, timers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... shaping, the objectives of forging may include grain refinement, control of second-phase morphology, controlled grain flow, and the achievement of specific microstructures and properties. The chapter explains how these objectives can be met by managing work energy via temperature and deformation control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... with accurate control of the working temperature and strain rate. It describes the materials typically used as well as equipment and tooling, die heating procedures, part separation techniques, and postforging heat treatment. forgings hot-die forging isothermal forging nickel alloys titanium alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... the particles at the solidus temperature. This liquid softens the structure sufficiently so that capillary forces acting between particles induce rapid densification. Temperature controls the amount of liquid, as evident by the density-versus-temperature plot in Fig. 8.7 for 40 μm powder. Note the rapid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... density of powder-binder feedstock requires slow rotation and precise temperature control. After cooling, the hollow structure is stripped from the tooling and sintered. Such an approach is useful for large, hollow bodies, such as outdoor statues. Styrofoam (Dow Chemical Company) is a form of foamed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... by conditioning of the metal, by conditioning the environment, and by electrochemical control. Finally, the chapter deals with high-temperature oxidation that usually occurs in the absence of moisture. uniform corrosion galvanic corrosion pitting corrosion crevice corrosion erosion corrosion cavitation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the factors that influence temperature in forging operations and presents equations that can be used to predict and control it. The discussion covers heat generation and transfer, the effect of metal flow, temperature measurement, testing methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... their effect. It describes the effect of hot working on nonmetallic inclusions and the many properties influenced by them. It discusses the recrystallization mechanism by which hot working produces microstructural changes and explains how to control it by adjusting temperature, degree of reduction, and cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
...-energy criterion is used fairly extensively, particularly for quality control evaluations and acceptance tests of structural steels. The fracture-appearance transition temperature (FATT, T 2 in Fig. 2.1 ) is the temperature at which the fracture is 50% brittle and 50% ductile in appearance. The basis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... control. The latter aspect of aluminum additions to steel and many other effects of aluminum, especially its combination with nitrogen, are described in a comprehensive review article by Wilson and Gladman ( Ref 8.28 ) Aluminum and nitrogen have high solid solubility in austenite at high temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... the effect of alloying on structure and composition and explains how alloy content can be controlled to optimize properties and behaviors such as ductility, strength, toughness, fatigue and fracture resistance, and resistance to corrosion, wear, and high-temperature creep. It also examines the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract The commercial relevance of cast irons is best understood in the context of the iron-carbon phase diagram, where their composition places them near the eutectic point, which sheds light on why they melt at lower temperatures than steel and why they can be cast into more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... For example, as little as 2% Ni in cast iron is beneficial. Monel (alloy 400), the austenitic stainless steels containing 8 to 20% Ni, and other nickel-bearing alloys are used in many applications involving high temperatures or control of contamination. Aluminum is unsuitable for equipment that handles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract Temperature is a critical process parameter in the heat treatment and forging of steel and must be accurately measured to properly control it. This appendix discusses the operating principles of thermocouples and infrared pyrometers, describing the various types as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... elements. Softening occurs by the diffusion-controlled coarsening of cementite. Strong carbide formers, such as chromium, molybdenum, and vanadium, will reduce the rate of coarsening and thus minimize the amount of softening. Additionally, at higher tempering temperatures, these elements may themselves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... The discussion also provides information on time-temperature dependence in induction heating, workpiece distortion in induction surface hardening, residual stresses after induction surface hardening and finish grinding, and input and output control of steel for induction surface hardening of gears. References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... would be further to the left. The transformation, or decomposition, of beta to alpha and intermetallic phase is a diffusion-controlled process. It requires the diffusion of atoms, and therefore, it proceeds faster at high temperatures where diffusion is more rapid. Thus, high alloy contents and high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., wear, fracture toughness, and tensile strength as well as temperature effects, residual stress, and quality control. References References 1. O’Neill H. : The Hardness of Metals and Its Measurement , Chapman & Hall, Ltd. , London , 1934 . 2. O’Neill H. : Hardness...