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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This appendix provides tempering curves for common grades of steel, including 1045, 1144, 4140, 4150, and E52100. hardness steel temperature tempering curves Fig. A5.1 Tempering curve for 1045 steel. Tempered 1 h at heat; as quenched, 60 HRC at 120 °C (250 °F). Source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This appendix provides hardenability curves for several H-steels (1045H, 4130H, 4140H, 4142H, 4145H, 4340H, 5160H, 8620H) and one alloy steel (E52100). hardenability curves hardness heat-treating temperature steel Fig. A6.1 Heat-treating temperatures recommended by SAE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the alloy composition, metallurgy, mechanical behavior, stabilization, texture, anisotropy, high-temperature properties, and corrosion and oxidation resistance of ferritic stainless steels. ferritic stainless steels alloy composition mechanical behavior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Temperature Conversions The general argument of this conversion table was devised by Sauveur and Boylston. The middle columns of numbers (in boldface type) contain the temperature readings (°F or °C) to be converted. When converting from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius, read the Celsius...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... recovery are the annihilation of excess point defects, the rearrangement of dislocations into lower-energy configurations, and the formation of subgrains that grow and interlock into sub-boundaries. The article also discusses the main factors that affect recrystallization. They are temperature and time...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of these failure modes. Some body-centered cubic and hexagonal close-packed metals, and steels in particular, exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition when loaded under impact and the chapter describes the use of notched bar impact testing to determine the temperature at which a normally ductile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Temperature is a critical process parameter in the heat treatment and forging of steel and must be accurately measured to properly control it. This appendix discusses the operating principles of thermocouples and infrared pyrometers, describing the various types as well as advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... a deformation temperature range of 0 to 300 deg C and magnesium and aluminum extruded products with a working temperature range of 300 to 600 deg C. The second part focuses on copper alloy extruded products, extruded titanium alloy products, and extruded products in iron alloys with a working...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract This chapter opens with a discussion of the classification of rod and tube extrusion processes. The standard processes involve hot working (extrusion at temperatures above room temperature), but some specialized cold working processes are also used for rod and tube extrusion. The next...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... continuous cast microstructure of aluminum and copper alloys. The discussion provides information on billet and grain segregation and defects in continuous casting. The chapter then discusses the processes involved in the deformation of pure metals and alloys at room temperature. Next, it describes the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... produced increasing mean compressive stress p measured by the increase in the reduction in area at fracture φ in tensile tests at room temperature The extensive variations in the extrusion process enable a wide spectrum of materials to be extruded. After rolling, extrusion can be considered to be...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Vergleich von hochwarmfesten Legierungen ( Causes for the Creep Properties of Hot-Working Steels and Comparison of High Temperature Alloys ), ZWF , Vol 71 ( No. 5 ), 1976 , p 212 – 217 10.1515/zwf-1976-710511 [Ber 76/2]: Berns H. , Auslegung von Blockaufnehmern und Druckguβkammern unter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
.... In special cases—for example, brass wire—the extrusion ratio can be as high as 1000. However, this requires the material’s being extruded to have a low flow stress in addition to a high specific press pressure of up to 1000 N/mm 2 . Extrusion is therefore normally carried out at a high temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
...) , Schimmelpfennig K. , Ed., Strangpressen, DGM-Informationsgesellschaft , Verlag , 1997 , p 179 [Gär 80]: Gärtner H. , Temperaturmodell einer Strangpresse (Temperature Model of an Extrusion Press) , Technischer Bericht, Schloemann-Siemag AG , 1980 [Ger 96]: Gers H. , Theoretical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the factors that influence temperature in forging operations and presents equations that can be used to predict and control it. The discussion covers heat generation and transfer, the effect of metal flow, temperature measurement, testing methods, and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract Corrosive environments can be broadly classified as atmospheric, underground/soil, water, acidic, alkaline, and combinations of these. Complicating matters is the fact that there are important variables, for example, pH, temperature, and the presence of biological organisms, that can...