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temper graphite

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., and examines the growth mechanisms and structural details that set them apart. It also discusses the formation of compacted (vermicular) graphite and malleable iron, and compares and contrasts the composition, properties, and heat treatment of whiteheart and blackheart malleable types. chilled cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are given in Table 24.1 , and some of their distinguishing features are summarized in Table 24.2 . With the exception of white cast iron, all cast irons have microstructures that consist of a graphite phase in a matrix that can be ferritic, pearlitic, bainitic, tempered martensitic, or combinations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... (nodular) graphite (Types I and II in ASTM A247) Compacted (vermicular) graphite (Type IV in ASTM A247) Temper graphite (TG) from a solid-state reaction called malleabilization (Type III graphite in ASTM A247) Classification of cast iron by commercial designation, microstructure, and fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... iron and then annealing the white cast iron to convert the iron carbide into the irregularly shaped nodules of graphite. This form of graphite in malleable iron is called temper carbon . Figure 1 shows the microstructure of a typical malleable cast iron. Subsequent variations in post-annealing heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... the abrasion-resistant white cast irons. There are ten different white cast irons, according to ASTM A532. These are listed subsequently: Mottled Iron Malleable iron is produced by heat treating white iron to break down or decompose the iron carbide into a temper carbon (a form of graphite). Malleable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... (a) Important differences appear in boldfaced type. (b) Total carbon content (includes graphite plus combined carbon). Source: Ref 3 Comparative hardness values for quenched and tempered ductile irons Table 2 Comparative hardness values for quenched and tempered ductile irons Iron HB...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses ferrous metals, including low-carbon steels, stainless steels, and cast irons. It also provides information on hardening and hardenability and the tempering process. hardening tempering ferrous metals hardenability Jominy end-quench testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... annealing. For elimination of minor amounts of well-dispersed carbides in unalloyed irons 815–900 1500–1650 1 h/2.54 cm (1 in.) of cross section Furnace cool to 315 °C (600 °F). Cool in still air from 315 °C to room temperature. High-temperature (graphitizing) full anneal Elimination of massive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Shortness Sensitization Temper Embrittlement Microcrack Formation Graphitization of Steel Microstructures Altered during Cutting/Machining Microstructures Altered under Service Conditions Normalizing Homogenizing Quenching Intercritical Annealing Cold Working...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... conditions, which are rarely completely achieved in industrial processes. Fig. 2.2 The iron-carbon phase diagram. Solid lines indicate Fe-Fe 3 C diagram; dashed lines indicate iron-graphite diagram. Source: Ref 5 Before discussing the diagram, we must first understand what a microstructure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the composition, properties, and uses of crystalline ceramics, glasses, clay, and concrete mixes. It also discusses the carbon structure of diamond, graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes. amorphous carbon clay concrete mixes crystalline ceramics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... surface Fig. 6.44 (a) Graphite nodules in as-polished (unetched) sample, 100 ×; (b) fine, banded ferrite-pearlite structure of the core with graphite nodules, 400×; (c) microstructure at the edge consisting of completely spheroidized structure with intergranular cracks and graphite nodules, 400...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... treatments, will free carbon or graphite be present, and in such alloys, the form of the graphite is usually specified by a suitable adjective. Thus, the terms primary graphite, secondary graphite , and temper carbon indicate the origin of the phase, whereas, the morphology is suggested by flake graphite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... Malleable cast iron is produced by a prolonged heat treatment of white cast iron. The graphite distribution is similar to that of ductile irons, except that, as shown in Fig. 16.11 , the isolated clumps of graphite (often called temper carbon) are more irregular. Malleable irons, developed in approximately...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... of 1042 steel. Ac 3 , temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed on heating. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 5.23 Typical hardness and residual stress profile in induction-hardened (to 3 mm, or 0.12 in., case depth) and tempered (at 260 °C, or 500 °F) 1045 steel. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... in a double-cone blender. Elemental addition of alloying elements, that is, graphite, copper, or nickel, has its drawback, because these elements tend to segregate in the product as the alloying element content increases. A recent development in this regard is the introduction of diffusion-bonded iron powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the types, methods, and advantages of heat treating procedures, including annealing, normalizing, tempering, and case hardening. It describes the iron-carbon system, the formation of equilibrium and metastable phases, and the effect of alloy elements...