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synthetic lubricants

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Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 6.9: Dependence of viscosity on temperature for selected synthetic lubricants. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the properties and attributes of various classes of metalworking lubricants, including mineral oils; natural oils, fats, derivatives, and soaps; synthetic fluids (olefins, esters, polyglycols, ionic liquids); compounded lubricants (oils, greases, fats); aqueous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... and rubbing materials has a critical scuffing temperature that is constant, regardless of the operating conditions ( Ref 16 ). The critical scuffing temperatures are not constant for synthetic lubricants and lubricants with antiscuff additives; they must be determined from tests that closely simulate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... is the ability of an oil to accept additives; sometimes this is a problem, especially with synthetics. Oxidation Resistance Anyone who has taken oil-lubricated machining apart knows about varnish. It is a yellow-brown deposit on once-shiny metal surfaces; this varnish is degraded oil. Temperature and use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., the choices of lubrication systems are very limited [ Schey, 1983 ]. The four most common lubrication systems are MoS 2 , graphite, synthetics, and glass; however, MoS 2 is only useful at warm forging temperatures (up to 750 °F, or 400 °C). MoS 2 and graphite are solid lubricants. Because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... ). This gives the user additional information on the applicability of an oil. Fig. 15.1 American Petroleum Institute (API) oil-labeling system for oil containers The use of mineral or synthetic oil is also an issue when oil is determined to be the lubricant of choice. Most lubrication experts...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... the friction and wear that occur in hot and cold rolling under hydrodynamic and mixed-film lubrication; the influence of viscosity, film thickness, rolling speed, interface pressure, pass reduction, and lubricant breakdown; and the effect of surface finish and defects. The chapter also provides best practices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... synthetic oils are more expensive than mineral oils. Fluid lubricants under ideal conditions fully separate rubbing surfaces, as shown in Fig. 2.21 . The more robust the molecules (viscosity), the better the chance to get fluid film separation and hydrodynamic lubrication. However, all tribosystems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... less than 30% of the total concentrate volume. Synthetics: Synthetic fluids are categorized by two types: water based and hydrocarbon based. The color of this lubricant normally is hazy or milky. Dry-Film Lubricants: Dry-film lubricants are divided into water-soluble and water-free (“hot melt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... (as in rubber bands) is such a substance, but organic chemistry has allowed this material to be chemically duplicated as polyisoprene elastomer. Thus, elastomers are synthetic rubbers, but the term rubber is generally used to refer to natural and synthetic polymers that fit the elongation definitions. 11.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... Abrasive and size Lubricant Force (per sample) Time Speed (rpm) Rotation (a) Recipe 1 SiC 120 grit Water 15 N 45 seconds 300 Comp SiC 240 grit Water 15 N 45 seconds 300 Comp SiC 400 grit Water 15 N 45 seconds 300 Comp SiC 600 grit Water 15 N 45 seconds 300...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
..., and lubricant may be similar for either automated or manual grinding/polishing, with a few exceptions. However, what will change are the process variables, which include sample/platen speed, vertical force, and process time. Fig. 3.4 Polishing equipment, consumables, and process variables that influence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract Forging is a deformation process achieved through the application of compressive stresses. During the stroke, pressures and velocities are continuously changing and the initial lubricant supply must suffice for the duration of the operation. Lubricant residues and pickup products also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...-film lubrication. (c) Boundary lubrication. Source: Ref 3 Lubricant Forms The three principle fluids (water, oil, and synthetic fluid) that comprise the primary ingredients of sheet metal forming lubricants are combined with additives to achieve the desired operating characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
..., heat, strain, and distortion for different tooling configurations and geometries. It explains how to select and apply lubricants based on drawing speed, die design, and other factors and how to maintain sufficient film thickness for hydrodynamic, mixed, and solid-film lubrication conditions. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... straight oil with extreme-pressure (EP) additives lost its performance ( Ref 6.28 , 6.29 ). To endure this elevated tool temperature, several liquid lubricants such as some petroleum-based and water-based synthetic lubricants with EP additives are recommended by lubricant manufacturers ( Ref 6.30 ). Dry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract This chapter reviews the basic theory of lubrication in the context of metal forming applications. It discusses the rheological properties of fluids and their effect on fluid-film thickness at pressures, temperatures, and loading conditions typical of metal working processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... residue remains. Boring and Trepanning Superalloys are bored by methods similar to those used for turning, although the speeds and feeds must be reduced in most cases, because the same cooling and lubricating efficiency cannot be obtained as in cutting. In addition, in boring operations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract This chapter covers the mechanics and tribology of sheet metalworking processes, including shearing, bending, spinning, stretching, deep drawing, ironing, and hydroforming. It explains how to determine friction, wear, and lubrication needs based on process forces, temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... or lubricate surfaces, including solid film, chemical conversion, and vacuum coatings, surface oiling and texturing, and lubricating platings. It compares and contrasts methods based on thickness and depth and their relative effect on friction, erosion, and wear. coatings friction and wear properties...