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surface-hardening steels

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract The design requirements for mechanical shafts, pinions, and gears often call for features with very hard surfaces (to resist wear) based on a softer core (to avoid brittle fracture). This chapter explains how to selectively harden steel by diffusing carbon and nitrogen atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the process characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of various processes involved in surface hardening of steel. These include pack carburizing, liquid carburizing, gas carburizing, vacuum carburizing, plasma carburizing, gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes important requirements for ferrous and nonferrous alloys used for gears. Wrought surface-hardening and through-hardening carbon and alloy steels are the most widely used of all gear materials and are emphasized in this chapter. The processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Suitable steels for induction surface hardening Table 1 Suitable steels for induction surface hardening Type of steel Chemical composition % C Si Mn P, max S, max Cr Mo Ni 1 0.33–0.39 0.15–0.40 0.50–0.80 0.035 0.035 … … … 2 0.38–0.44 0.15–0.40 0.50–0.80...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... surface hardening. Finally, some special considerations for stainless steel castings are discussed. austenitic stainless steel composition duplex stainless steel ferritic stainless steel heat treatment martensitic stainless steel precipitation-hardening stainless steel wrought stainless steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... to take advantage of eutectic solidification in the binary iron-carbon system. Like steel, heat treatment of cast iron includes stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, through hardening, and surface hardening. This chapter introduces solid-state heat treatment of iron castings, covering general...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... diagrams. It then explains how various steels respond to heat treatments, such as annealing, normalizing, spheroidizing, tempering, and direct and interrupted quenching, and surface-hardening processes, such as flame and induction hardening, carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding. It also addresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... gears are required to maintain high compressive and bending strengths at an elevated temperature, carburizing steels that are least affected by tempering temperature are preferred. Fig. 5.2 Variation of tooth surface hardness with tempering temperature of carburized and hardened AISI 8620H gears...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract Nitriding is a surface hardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into the surface of steel while it is in the ferritic condition. Gas nitriding using ammonia as the nitrogen-carrying species is the most commonly employed process and is emphasized in this chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... to the various wrought stainless steel groups Group Ferritic Austenitic Martensitic Duplex Precipitation Hardening Preheat X Anneal X X X X Stress relieve (a) X X Harden X Temper X Austenite condition X Heat age X Nitride surface harden X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of proportional controllers and heat-regulating devices. Integration of control functions is illustrated with examples related to heating of steel slabs, surface hardening of steel parts, vacuum induction melting for casting operations, and process optimization for electric-demand control. Distributed control...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... distributions in two oil-hardened carburized gears. Source: Ref 20 Fig. 4.15 Rotating beam fatigue strength of case-hardening, through- hardening, and tool steels as a function of surface hardness. Source: Ref 21 Fig. 4.16 Fatigue limits of plasma and gas-carburized specimens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... long cylinder that would just transform to a specific microstructure at the center, if heat transfer during cooling were ideal, i.e., if the surface attained the temperature of the quenching medium instantly. A larger hardenability factor D I means that the steel will harden to a greater depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... and operating considerations for each treatment are discussed. References References 1. Davis J.R. , Ed., Process Selection Guide , Surface Hardening of Steels: Understanding the Basics , ASM International , 2002 , p 1 – 15 2. Stanescu M.S. et al. , Control of Surface Carbon...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...-hardened steels with very thin cases, steep drops, and/or a sudden change from a hard surface to a relatively soft core. Keeping in mind the principle that fracture can originate wherever the local stress first reaches the local strength, it is easy to understand subsurface-origin fracture. Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... workpieces per hour. Table 11.13 shows the production increase from an index fixture. Surface heating is used primarily in the surface hardening of steel parts such as shafts and gears. In this type of application, high power densities and short heating times are used when thin case depths are desired...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... for these temperatures. Design Procedures for Heat Treating Several types of heat treatments can be conducted using induction heating. These include through and surface hardening, normalizing, and tempering of steels, through annealing of steels and nonferrous metals, and annealing of pipe welds. Design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... is therefore softer and weaker than the surface in many instances. When a precipitation-hardening steel is quenched from below the eutectoid temperature, the supersaturated condition of the ferrite can be achieved with relatively slow rates of cooling due to the sluggishness of the reaction. Subsequent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... properties of the steel or cast iron component. In this section, surface hardening is limited to localized heat treating processes that produce a hard quenched surface without introducing additional alloying species. This approach consists of hardening the surface by flame, induction, laser-beam, or electron...