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surface wave technique

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... (a) the amplitude of the acoustic pressure wave and time of flight of reflected acoustic waves and (b) the amplitude of the acoustic pressure wave of either transmitted or reflected acoustic waves. The pulse echo technique is the most widely used ultrasonic technique. Flaws are detected and their sizes estimated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... Surface . J. Appl. Phys. , Vol 43 , 1972 , p 4669 – 4674 10.1063/1.1660986 6. Warnes R.H. , et al., An Improved Technique for Determining Dynamic Material Properties Using the Expanding Ring , in Shock Waves and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Metals , Meyers M.A. and Murr...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... longitudinal, shear and surface waves in the sample [5 , 6] . Instead of the large water baths of C-scan, a tiny water droplet acoustically couples the transducer and sample. Image contrast is formed by the combined interference of longitudinal, shear and leaky surface waves. Narrow-band RF pulses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... radiography. Radiographic techniques are extensively used for the NDE of castings, weldments, boilers, and pressure vessels. Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection is used for detecting surface and subsurface flaws in metals, ceramics, and polymers. Ultrasonic waves are sent through the component...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... sections, the magnetic-particle testing (MPT) of the root-pass and hot pass, in an attempt to find cracks before filling the weld groove, could save on repair costs. Using dry powder techniques, MPT can be carried out while surfaces are still hot. Attempts have been made to incorporate NDE techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... interfaces. Scanning Techniques Figure 10 shows how a shear wave from an angle beam transducer progresses through a flat test piece, by reflecting from the surfaces at points called nodes. The linear distance between two successive nodes on the same surface is called the skip distance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...) microscopy has experienced a decisive technical improvement by the application of Lock-in Thermography (LIT) [7 - 10] , which is commercially available for failure analysis by different vendors. Due to its averaging nature, this technique allows the detection of local heat sources at the surface of a few µW...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... on the surface at the point of impact; however, the delamination often radiates from the impact point, resulting in an extensive network of internal matrix cracks and delaminations. 12.2 Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection is the most valuable technique for inspection of composite parts. The two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to single micrometer and a sensitivity within microwatt range [9] . The general setup consists of a mid-wave IR camera that is focused on the device surface while the device is electrically stimulated. If the electrical stimulation is applied constantly, the resulting thermal image is representing the heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... infrared techniques for fault location and failure analysis. We use mid-wave infrared microscopes, from 2 to 4 microns to detect thermal infrared radiation, to locate short circuits by their joule heating. With careful calibration we can even measure junction temperatures from the front or back of the die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... effectiveness of the inspection proposed for each site, particularly where there is complex weld geometry, poor surface finish, or restricted access. Advances in NDE techniques have made it possible to determine material integrity remotely without direct access to the material under test. Nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... ). There are a few nondestructive analytical methods used to examine composites after impact. Two methods used in the aircraft industry to analyze damage areas are ultrasound C-scan and x-radiography techniques. These analytical techniques can show the extent of damage in the composite but not the effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and the packaging materials until it reaches the device surface. At the surface, this thermal energy forms a hot-spot from which it radiates off as infrared waves that are detected by an IR-sensitive camera. Despite the degradation in lateral resolution owed to lateral spreading of the thermal wave, lock...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... When faying surfaces of parts to be brazed are prepared by blasting techniques, several factors should be considered. There are two purposes for blasting of parts to be brazed: one is to remove any oxide film, and the other is to roughen the mating surfaces in order to increase capillary attraction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... The encounters between the various waves create highly localized stress inhomogeneities, which lead to peculiar fractures. A compression wave through the sheet metal is reflected as a tension wave from the rear surface of the sheet. Their interference results in a fracture on a plane parallel to the sheet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... at the locations showing EBAC discontinuity, cracking (b) and ESD (d) related defects observed Lock-In Thermography There are different analysis techniques available to understand the surface temperature distributions. Infrared Thermography is an elegant non-contact means of analyzing even rough surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... diffraction, and neutron diffraction. These techniques provide information on the chemical composition of the material, microstructure and phase analysis, and also the surface characteristics. From a failure investigation point of view, the characterization of boiler tubes entails the determination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... resolution of detail, the sample surface being examined must have adequate contrast. There are numerous microscopic techniques [ 1 – 7 ] that can be used to observe the microstructure of materials, and these techniques produce images that have the resolution and contrast needed for observing microscopic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
..., the flat surfaces are bright using this illumination technique, but any voids, microcracks, or indentations are darker because the light is reflected off the sample at an angle. Bright-field illumination is particularly useful for imaging samples for ply counts, fiber-orientation verification, resin...