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surface treatment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., distortion, postsintering treatments, and mechanical properties are presented for each. The shaping options include powder-binder approaches such as binder jetting, injection molding, extrusion, slip and slurry casting, centrifugal casting, tape casting, and additive manufacturing. Sintering options are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... cleaning and water flushing, whereas oils and hydrocarbons are removed by alkaline treatment. For removal of the scale, inhibited acids are employed as solvent cleaners. At the end of the solvent cleaning stage, the scale and traces of copper are removed and the fresh metallic surface is exposed. The last...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., surface decarburization, depth of carburization or other thermochemical treatments, coatings, and so on. In the case of mounting in polymer or plastic, the best option typically is the application of a coating on the specimen surface that one wishes to protect for observation (for instance, a layer of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... along the cross section Characterization of segregation mode and intensity Evaluation of position, shape, and dimensions of cracks and pores Evaluation of the presence of pipe, residual pipe, or shrinkage cavities Evaluation of the presence, depth, and homogeneity of surface heat treatments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract The surface condition of metals can have a significant effect on the outcome of high-temperature processes and vice versa. This chapter discusses the general cleaning and surface treatment needs of work in-process both before and after induction hardening. It identifies contaminants...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes surface modification processes that go beyond conventional heat treatments, including plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, low-pressure carburizing, ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, salt bath coating, and transformation hardening via high-energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... mechanisms, as described for quench embrittlement in Chapter 19, “Low Toughness and Embrittlement Phenomena in Steels , in this book. Stress-relief heat treatments and tempering lower surface residual stresses, and several heat treatments, as described in the next section, are designed to minimize the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes heat treatments that produce uniform grain structures, reduce residual stresses, and improve ductility and machinability. It also discusses spheroidizing treatments that improve strength and toughness by promoting dispersions of spherical carbides in a ferrite matrix. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... that stainless steels cannot be hardened by heat treatment. As a result, they are highly sensitive to processing-induced defects and the formation of detrimental phases. The chapter explains how alloy design, phase equilibria, microstructure, and thermomechanical processing can be concurrently...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to produce pearlite of fine interlamellar spacing and high hardness on the surface of rails by head hardening , a heat treatment applied by accelerated cooling with forced air, water sprays, or oil or aqueous polymer quenching either online while the steel is still austenitic immediately after hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... solidification, and hot working, i. e., during primary processing. Cracking developed during this stage is identified and corrected in the steel mill, but may occasionally find its way into finished products. The second major stage is in finished steel products, either associated with final heat treatment or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... microstructure that can be produced in any carbon steel; therefore, heat treatments that produce martensite are referred to as hardening heat treatments . This chapter first shows that martensitic hardness is a function of steel carbon content and describes some of the mechanisms by which that hardness and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of partitioning, precipitation, segregation, and retained austenite. cold work tool steel die steel heat treatment high-speed tool steel hot work tool steel maraging steel microstructure shock-resistant tool steel water-hardening tool steel TOOL STEELS are the steels used to form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... stable phases) and/or heating or cooling between temperature ranges in which different phases are stable (thus producing beneficial phase transformations). The iron-carbon equilibrium phase diagram is the foundation on which all heat treatment of steel is based. This diagram defines the temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... references to atlases containing collections of these diagrams for a variety of steels are given. The availability of these diagrams makes possible the selection of steels and the design of heat treatments that will either produce desirable microstructures of ferrite and cementite or avoid diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... E.B. and Merwin M.J. , Ed., TMS , Warrendale , 2003 , p 27 – 41 6.16 Baozhu G. and Krauss G. , The Effect of Low-Temperature Isothermal Heat Treatments on the Fracture of 4340 Steel , J. Heat Treating , Vol 4 ( No. 4 ), 1986 , p 365 – 372 10.1007/BF02833092...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... , Zackay V.F. and Aaronson H.I. , Ed., Interscience , New York , 1962 , p 131 – 196 4.14 Hinchliffe C. E. and Smith G. D. W. , Strain aging of pearlitic steel wire during post-drawing heat treatments , Materials Science and Technology , Vol 17 , 2001 , p 148 - 154...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... metallurgy, i.e., the processing-structure-property relationships, of steels. Processing refers to the manufacturing steps used to produce a finished steel product and includes casting, hot and cold work (mechanical and thermomechanical processing), and all sorts of heat treatment (thermal processing...