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surface tension

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... causes of delamination is presence of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at surfaces like die surface or substrate/lead frame surface prior to the molding process. PDMS is a widely used chemical agent which is very mobile due to its extremely low surface tension and viscosity. [14] [15] Due to presence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... and resists plastic flow. The result is that the surface can be forced into compression, which improves fatigue resistance. During treatments in which the heating depth is greater, the situation can be reversed, and the surface can be put into tension, which, of course, is detrimental to fatigue resistance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes surface modification processes that go beyond conventional heat treatments, including plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, low-pressure carburizing, ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, salt bath coating, and transformation hardening via high-energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Abstract This chapter provides helpful guidelines for selecting a surface treatment for a given application. It identifies important design factors and applicable treatments for common design scenarios, materials, and operating conditions. It explains why heat treatments and finishing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers common techniques for surface characterization, including the modern scanning electron microscopy and methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the thermally induced changes that occur on the surface of steel exposed to different environments. It explains how oxide scales form during heat treating and how factors such as temperature, composition, and surface finish affect growth rates, grain structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... 3 mm ( 1 8 in.) deep. After gently mixing with the end of a straw, blow vigorously through the straw until an array of soap bubbles fills the entire glass. The surface tension forces in the liquid soap film are similar to the surface tension forces in the solid-solid surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... parts. It also describes the mechanism behind dendritic grain crystallization and how factors such as surface tension, capillary length, and lattice symmetry affect dendritic arm size and spacing. The section that follows examines the morphology of the silicon crystals that form in aluminum-silicon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract This chapter explains how investigators determined that a stabilizer link rod fractured due to overload, possibly by a combination of tension and bending forces that occurred during an accident. It includes images comparing the fractured rod with its undamaged counterpart recovered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... out of 49 wires had thinned and broke apart, and that the remaining nine wires failed in tension evidenced by cup and cone fracture and the presence of dimples on the fracture surface. Based on their findings, investigators concluded that cable snapped because of excessive thinning due to contact wear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This appendix is a collection of tables containing thermal, electrical, mechanical, and physical property data for metals under various conditions. It also includes the periodic table of elements. electrical properties melting points metals periodic table surface tension...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... tensile stresses have to overcome the residual compressive surface stresses before the bulk metal starts being loaded in tension. However, if the working is severe, so that deformation occurs throughout the cross section of the metal, there will be tensile residual stresses on the surface, as shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., with the bottom surface in tension and the top surface in compression. The maximum shear stress occurs at the center of the cross section. Since the stress varies through the cross section, failure can occur in tension, compression, shear, or some combination of these conditions. Although the three-point test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... Applying a flux causes the molten solder to flow into the joint. The liquid metal appears to be sucked into the joint, and, in fact, it does become sucked in by a force called surface tension. Surface tension is a force acting along the plane of a surface. The flux removes an oxide from the copper surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... would be on the surface and tensile residual stress would be in the center, in all three dimensions. The amount of compression stress should be balanced by the same amount of tension stress in order to maintain equilibrium. For high-hardenability steels, the residual stress distribution may be different...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... states on the surface are desirable because in fatigue loading, the tensile fatigue stresses have to overcome the residual compressive stresses before the metal starts being loaded in tension. However, if the working is severe, so that deformation occurs throughout the cross section of the metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... that no sliding shear occurs when the 45° slit is opened and closed. The elastic stress distribution in pure torsion is maximum at the surface and zero at the center of the shaft. This is true for all stress components—tension, shear, and compression—acting on the shaft in torsion. Figure 1(b) shows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270162
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... examination. Based on their observations and the results of SEM fractography, failure analysts concluded that the gusset plates failed due to a downward bending overload in tension and that the tail rotor control cable snapped due to tensile overload. There were no indications of delayed failure in any...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Ceramics normally have high melting temperatures, excellent chemical stability and, due to the absence of conduction electrons, tend to be good electrical and thermal insulators. They are also inherently hard and brittle, and when loaded in tension, have almost no tolerance for flaws...