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surface soil removal

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... visible as a ragged border between the light-colored aluminum and the darker, uncoated metal below. Source: Nalco Chemical Company Fig. 12 Corrosion cell on a metal surface buried in soil. The corrosion current leaves the metal surface at an anode and enters the soil. The current flows from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... mechanism causing this corrosion is referred to as differential corrosion cells. Microbes and stray direct current (dc) in the soil also can affect underground corrosion. Fig. 1 Example of external corrosion of an underground pipeline. Lower quadrant of pipeline shown after coating removal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... on the metal surface or its environment may initiate attack by causing a difference in potential, and this results in localized corrosion. The metal undergoing electrochemical corrosion need not be immersed in a liquid but may be in contact with moist soil or may have moist areas on the metal surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Unlike dc stray-current corrosion, induced-ac corrosion cannot be mitigated by adjusting the pipe to soil potential of the pipe. It is controlled by removing the ac from the pipeline and flowing the current to earth via ground beds or zinc anodes. Prevention of Stray-Current Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... by mercury and zinc amalgam combined with residual stresses from welding caused cracking of the weldment ( Fig. 6 ) The corrosive action of mercury can be serious with or without stress because amalgamation, once initiated, continues to propagate unless the mercury can be removed. If an aluminum surface has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... are known to be susceptible to this kind of erosion and researchers have identified critical fluid velocities below, which liquid erosion is minimal. Thus, in soils and rock, the mechanism of material removal is fluidization of particles from the solid surface and dispersal of the detritus by the action...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... J. , Ed., North-Holland , 1963 , p 222 – 230 9. “Standard Method of Evaluating Degree of Surface Disfigurement of Paint Films by Fungal Growth or Soil and Dirt Accumulation ,” American National Standards Institute and D 3274, Annual Book of ASTM Standards , American Society for Testing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Bath Descaling Background Surface Finishes by Chemical (Electrochemical) Means Surface Finishes by Mechanical Means Comments Cleaning is required to remove contaminants from the surfaces of parts made of superalloys. Shop soils such as oil, grease, and cutting fluids can be removed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corrosion cell on a buried steel pipe. Under freely corroding conditions, an area on the steel surface becomes an anode, and another area becomes a cathode. The potential difference between the anode and cathode gives rise to a corrosion current flowing from the anode into the soil. The corrosion current...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., and other surface contamination. For example, in the steel mill, a stainless steel may be pickled in an acid solution, often a mixture of nitric and hydrofluoric acids (HNO 3 -HF), to remove oxides formed during heat treatment. Once the surface is cleaned and the bulk composition of the stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... organisms can influence the occurrence or rate of corrosion, and the types of corrosion most often influenced by microbes. The chapter then discusses the formation of biofilms on the surface of metals. This is followed by a list of industries most often reported as being affected by microbiological...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., such as seawater or soil. The body of the reference electrode is made from a durable and impact-resistant polymeric material. A removable endcap is provided to protect the electrode when it is not in use. All reference electrodes have similar features, in that the stable reference potential is achieved...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... charged hydroxyl ions (OH − ) in equal amounts. The metal undergoing electrochemical corrosion need not be immersed in a liquid but may be in contact with moist soil or may just have moist areas on the metal surface. The cathode is the electrode of an electrolytic cell at which reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Coatings on Metal Substrates • B 627, Test Method for Electrolytic Corrosion Testing (EC Test) • B 651, Test Method for Measurement of Corrosion Sites in Nickel Plus Chromium or Copper Plus Nickel Plus Chromium Electroplated Surfaces with the Double-Beam Interference Microscope • B 680, Test...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... fretting wear WEAR IS USUALLY DEFINED as the undesired removal of material from contacting surfaces by mechanical action ( Ref 1 ). Although it is not usually as serious a service problem as is fracture, wear is an enormously expensive problem. This problem has both good and bad aspects. Making...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Fig. 11.1 Ti-6Al-4V alpha case. 250× Fig. 11.2 Cleaning and belt grinding sequences for Ti-6Al-4V sheet Fig. 11.3 Artist’s rendering of effect of surface condition on etched metal surface Abstract Abstract Cleaning procedures serve to remove scale, tarnish films...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... from blocks of high-carbon wootz steel and were known for their highly decorative surface patterns caused by fine bands of dispersed alloy carbides. Japanese swords, which evolved about the same time, were made by welding alternating layers of low- and high-carbon steel together in multiple forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... be in contact with moist soil or may just have moist areas on the metal surface. The cathode is the electrode of an electrolytic cell at which reduction is the principal reaction. Electrons flow toward the cathode in the external circuit. The cathode does not corrode. A metallic path is an external...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... . Cleaning processes used for removing soils and contaminants are varied, and their effectiveness depends on the requirements of the specific application. Because of the variety of available cleaning materials and the process step possibilities, the selection of a cleaning procedure greatly depends...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... be used for removal of particulates from surfaces. (The air filter should be capable of trapping and retaining at least 99.97 wt% of dispersed particles of 0.03 μm diameter [ Sanderson et al. 2001 ].) Approved methods of handling the hazardous waste and recyclable material (scrap, chips, powder) must...