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surface power density

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... harden localized areas of ferrous parts. These processes are similar to flame and induction hardening, except that the need for quenchants is eliminated as long as a sufficient size workpiece is being used. Laser melting requires higher power densities than the levels used for laser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... which the process runs will affect the cleaning characteristics. Methods of cleaning metal surface can be classified as: Mechanical cleaning, including power brushing, grinding, and abrasive blasting Chemical cleaning, including emulsion cleaning, solvent cleaning, vapor degreasing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... μm (0.28 mil). Beyond this thickness, flaking can occur due to an increase in surface tensile stress. Sintered density is an important consideration when applying steam treating for improved strength and hardness. Its ability to increase the wear resistance of the substrate material depends on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... refurbishment of structural engineering components are also discussed. high-pressure cold spray process repair refurbishment aerospace industry oil and gas industry power-generation industry COLD SPRAY COATING TECHNOLOGY, as described in previous chapters, has the capability to provide surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... condenser is a shell-and-tube-type heat exchanger (or surface condenser) installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in thermal power stations. The condensers are heat exchangers that convert steam from its gaseous to liquid state (i.e., water). In doing so, the latent heat of steam is given out inside...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... deep, narrow welds of high quality. This technology is highly developed and has followed the continuous development of high-energy density power sources ( Ref 22.8 , 22.10 ). Of the laser and electron beam surface-modification techniques, localized surface heat treatment is the most highly developed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... layer. Stainless steel surface finishing is governed by: High strength and high work-hardening rate require more power for metal removal. High surface hardness influences which abrasive will be effective. Low thermal conductivity can cause excessive temperatures during processing and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
....” Many of these treatments rely in some way on tempered martensitic microstructures, and therefore are referred to as surface hardening treatments. They are widely used for applications such as shafts, gears, and bearings that are used to transmit power and are subject to high bending, contact, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... application of very low primary ion dose densities. Surface Spectroscopy provides detailed elemental and molecular information from the outer monolayers. Typical detection limits are in the ppm to ppb range. The pulsed primary ion beam can be focused to a small spot (microprobe mode) and rastered to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Abstract This chapter provides helpful guidelines for selecting a surface treatment for a given application. It identifies important design factors and applicable treatments for common design scenarios, materials, and operating conditions. It explains why heat treatments and finishing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers common techniques for surface characterization, including the modern scanning electron microscopy and methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., control ultimately is achieved by assessing the final characteristics of a workpiece, and light metallography is one of the most powerful methods of doing this. The surface carbon content, the carbon gradient in the case, the depth of the case and the microstructures at all levels can all be assessed and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... high-pressure cold spray coating characterization, including residual-stress characterization. The chapter includes some preliminary screening of tool hardness and bond adhesion strength, as well as a distinction between surface and bulk characterization techniques and their importance for cold spray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... Abstract Cold spray coatings technology has the potential to provide surface enhancement for applications in sectors such as defense and aerospace, oil and gas, power generation, medical, automotive, electronics, and railways. The ability to deposit clean metallic coatings is used in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... tend to be confined to the outer surface of the workpiece, a phenomenon known as the skin effect. The chapter includes several data plots showing how the depth of heating varies with frequency and how heating time, power density, and thermal conduction rate correspond with hardening depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... density and heating time also have an important influence on the depth to which the part is heated, wide deviations from Table 11.1 may be made with successful results. This interrelationship is shown in Fig. 11.3 in terms of case depth, frequency, and power density for surface-hardened steel. In some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in diameter, density in the hub and flange should be nearly equal. Unequal density leads to powder displacement from one part level to the next and to the formation of shear cracks. Such cracks often occur at 45° to the pressing direction and at surfaces at the junction (radius) between the hub and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... 8.21 Early-stage sintering shrinkage for 45 nm UO 2 powder at 838 °C (1540 °F). The solid line represents a one-third power law relation between shrinkage and hold time. It is the surface energy that drives sintering. As a consequence, a relation emerges between sintered density and surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... corrosion rate current density electrode half-cell reaction polarization If two or more electrochemical half-cell reactions can occur simultaneously at a metal surface, the metal acts as a mixed electrode and exhibits a potential relative to a reference electrode that is a function of the...