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surface flaws

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Image
Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 5.21 Propagation of surface flaw under uniform tension for initial flaw shape a /2 c = 0.3. Courtesy of T.M. Hsu More
Image
Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 5.22 Propagation of surface flaw under uniform tension for initial flaw shape a /2 c = 0.5. Courtesy of T.M. Hsu More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, and eddy current inspection are used to detect surface flaws. This chapter is a detailed account of the physical principles, process description, equipment requirements, selection criteria, advantages, limitations, and applications of these surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... caused by excessive material in a given hot roll pass being squeezed out into the area of the roll collar ( Fig. 2(i) ). When turned for the following pass, the material is rolled back into the bar and appears as a lap on the surface. Chevrons Chevrons are internal flaws named for their shape...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 6 Dual set of six circumferentially mounted probes used to ultrasonically detect flaws in cold drawn hexagonal bars. (a) Normal beam method to detect flaws deep inside bar. (b) Angle beam method to detect surface and near-surface flaws. Source: Ref 2 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and pressure vessels. 3.8.1 Conventional Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Visual Examination Visual examination is an easy and widely used method for detecting surface flaws in a variety of components. Visual examination is carried out with the naked eye and with instruments such as borescopes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... at the ingot surfaces. Fig. 4 Sections through two heat-resistant alloy ingots showing flaws that can impair forgeability. (a) Piece of unmelted consumable electrode (white spot near center). (b) Shelf (black line along edge) resulting from uneven solidification of the ingot. Source: Ref 1...
Image
Published: 01 October 2012
(constant stress-rate loading) data. Strength degradation in water is predicted for a dynamic load of 1 MPa/s. A mixed-mode fracture criterion was chosen to account for the change in surface flaw reliability for multiaxial stress states. Source: Ref 10.10 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... and equipment are tube or pipe diameter, wall thickness, surface condition, method of fabrication, electrical conductivity, metallurgical condition, magnetic properties (notably permeability), and degree of magnetization. Nature of Flaws Both the nature of flaws and of potential but unallowable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of the inspection methods that will be covered in the remainder of this book. Visual Inspection Visual inspection provides a means of detecting and examining a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities on joints (for example, welds, seals...
Image
Published: 01 December 1995
Fig. 23-2 (a) Flaw shape parameter curves for surface and internal cracks. (b) Graphical solutions for an internal disc shape flaw, embedded in a large body (tension loading). (c) Graphical solution for an elliptical surface crack tension loading More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of enhancing the visibility of flaws. A strongly colored, or fluorescent, liquid is applied liberally to the test surface and left to infiltrate surface-breaking cavities and cracks. The surface contact time is typically about 15 min. The excess liquid is then wiped from the surface, using some solvent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... materials) contain both surface and volume flaws. Surface flaws typically result from finishing operations and/or damage during service (for example, damage by foreign objects). Volume flaws typically are intrinsic to the material microstructure or are processing defects (voids, inclusions, etc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Eddy current inspection, like ultrasonic inspection, can be used for detecting subsurface porosity. Normally, eddy current inspection is confined to use on thin wall welded pipe and tubing because eddy currents are relatively insensitive to flaws that do not extend to the surface or into the near...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This chapter begins with an overview...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... Abstract This chapter summarizes the various kinds of gear wear and failure and how gear life in service is estimated and discusses the kinds of flaws in material that may lead to premature gear fatigue failure. The topics covered are alignment, gear tooth, surface durability and breakage...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 4 Schematic showing position of probe relative to flaw inside of bar and resulting wave display obtained for two methods of ultrasonic flaw detection. (a) Normal beam method. (b) Angle beam method. Wave display nomenclature: T, transmit pulse; S, surface reflection echo; F 1 , flaw echo More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... welded pipe and tubing because eddy currents are relatively insensitive to flaws that do not extend to the surface or into the near-surface layer. Magnetic particle inspection and liquid penetrant inspection are not suitable for detecting subsurface gas porosity. These methods are restricted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... used in conjunction with a microhardness test, a micrograph can be useful in relating microstructure to mechanical properties. Some History The critical factor in the light microscopy of metals is the surface preparation of the specimen. This is the basic insight made by the father...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 1 Typical flaws in resistance welded steel tubing, (a) contact marks (electrode burns), (b) hook cracks (upturned fiber flaws), (c) weld area crack, (d) pinhole, (e) stitching. Views (c), (d), and (e) are mating fracture surfaces of welds. Source: Ref 1 More