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surface flaws

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, and eddy current inspection are used to detect surface flaws. This chapter is a detailed account of the physical principles, process description, equipment requirements, selection criteria, advantages, limitations, and applications of these surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This chapter begins with an overview...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... temperature. Bursts can also occur during the forging operation. A number of surface flaws can be produced by the forging operation. These flaws are often caused by the movement of metal over or upon another surface without actual welding or fusing of the surfaces; such flaws may be laps or folds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... the nondestructive inspection of bars as it does for castings, forgings, or machined products. The method is used for detecting seams, cracks, and other surface flaws, and, to a limited extent, subsurface flaws. As a rule, the method is not capable of detecting flaws that are more than 2.5 mm (0.1 in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... choice of inspection method and equipment are tube or pipe diameter, wall thickness, surface condition, method of fabrication, electrical conductivity, metallurgical condition, magnetic properties (notably permeability), and degree of magnetization. Both the nature of flaws and of potential but...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... accurately and uniformly. Visual inspection is useful for checking the following: Dimensional accuracy of weldments Conformity of welds to size and contour requirements Acceptability of weld appearance with regard to surface roughness, weld spatter, and cleanness Presence of surface flaws...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... evaluation methods to flaw detection in P/M parts. The nondestructive evaluation methods covered are mechanical proof testing, metallography, liquid penetrant crack detection, filtered particle crack detection, magnetic particle crack inspection, direct current resistivity testing, x-ray radiography...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... properties, are being determined. Applications of eddy current and electromagnetic methods of inspection to castings can be divided into the following three categories: Detecting near-surface flaws such as cracks, voids, inclusions, blowholes, and pinholes (eddy current inspection) Sorting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... inspection methods that will be covered in the remainder of this book. Visual inspection provides a means of detecting and examining a variety of surface flaws, such as corrosion, contamination, surface finish, and surface discontinuities on joints (for example, welds, seals, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... being evaluated; and, a recording medium (usually film), as shown schematically in Fig. 1 . The test piece is a plate of uniform thickness containing an internal flaw that has absorption characteristics different from those of the surrounding material. Radiation from the source is absorbed by the test...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... applications. Human vision is better for the low speed, qualitative interpretation of complex, unstructured scenes. An example in which human vision is superior to machine vision is the inspection of automobile body surfaces for paint quality. Human vision can easily and quickly detect major flaws, such as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... that is to be machined away during further processing. This procedure is, however, more expensive than the others, but the sample is more representative. As an alternative, nondestructive metallographic examination can be performed at a specific surface location using either mechanical or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Mechanical components often require surface treatments to meet application demands. This chapter describes several surface hardening treatments for steel and their effect on microstructure, composition, and properties. It discusses flame hardening, induction heating, carburizing, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... ), which means that relatively small flaws (20 to 50 μm in radius) can act as sources of failure. These flaws can be processing defects, such as pores or inclusions, or surface cracks produced during machining or handling. Also, because their critical fracture toughness is low, flaw sizes in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... subjected to corrosion or erosion, the size and nature of surface flaws may change, which can significantly reduce the strength of the surface material. Once again, the strength of test samples subjected to an actual service environment could be determined and used for reliability calculations. This...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... instances in which there are finishing operations after induction hardening, stock removal can be completed after heat treating. In these cases surface hardness specifications must allow for the low hardnesses produced by decarburization. Defects or flaws most likely to be found in workpieces before...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... characteristics of nitrided steels after the carbonitriding treatment. fatigue fracture nitrided layers machine components structural flaw fatigue resistance steels THE DURABILITY of products depends strongly on surface conditions on the order of 1 μm to several millimeters, depending on the type...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of nondestructive inspection methods, including visual, ultrasonic, radiographic, and thermographic techniques, and the types of flaws and damages they can reveal in composite parts and assemblies. It describes the basic principles behind each method...