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surface energy

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... on the events that are contributing to sintering densification, followed by a discussion on the driving forces, such as surface energy, and high-temperature atomic motion as well as the factors affecting these processes. The process of microstructure evolution in sintering is then described, followed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses surface engineering treatments, including flame hardening, induction hardening, high-energy beam hardening, laser melting, and shot peening. It describes the basic implementation of each method, the materials for which they are suited, and their effect on surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... be analyzed based on energy dissipation. It describes the stick-slip behavior observed in wiper blades, the concept of asperities, and the significance of the shape, lay, roughness, and waviness of surfaces in sliding contact. It explains how friction forces are measured and how they are influenced by speed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... to the sample surface. The SE detector is usually positioned to the side and above the sample and is polarized to select the electrons that will be collected based on their energy. Figure 6.4 presents a schematic of the location of an SE detector with respect to the sample position. Sample topography greatly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes surface modification processes that go beyond conventional heat treatments, including plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, low-pressure carburizing, ion implantation, physical and chemical vapor deposition, salt bath coating, and transformation hardening via high-energy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This chapter begins with an overview...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... by dedicated tools such as Auger). Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS) on a SEM is less surface sensitive than e.g. Auger. Depending on the SEM settings and the sample matrix, interaction volumes can range from several hundred nanometers to tens of micrometers. The following section will show...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... them in critical industries such as mining, energy production, transportation, and mineral and chemical processing. The chapter also describes basic approaches to dealing with corrosion and wear in steel. corrosion protection corrosion resistance steel wear resistance SURFACE ENGINEERING...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... with temperature. Ostwald ripening is the mechanism by which smaller precipitates dissolve, and the solute is redistributed to larger, stable precipitates. Smaller particles have a higher free energy due to increased pressure as a result of their high surface curvature. Reversion occurs when an alloy containing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... and Israelachvili J.N. , Surface Forces and Nanorheology of Molecularly Thin Films , Nanotribiology and Nanomechanics , Bhushan B. , Ed., Springer , Berlin , 2011 , p 107 – 202 10.1007/978-3-642-15263-4_13 • Sherwood W.J. , Witmarsh C.K. , Jacobs J.M. , and Interrante L.V...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... in which a spherical nuclei of radius r forms within the bulk of the liquid. Since the formation of a nucleus requires the creation of an interface between the solid and liquid, it creates an increase in the free energy of the system. The surface energy required for a sphere of surface area 4π r 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... mechanism is the pushing-engulfment transition, which is a function of solidification velocity and surface energy. For regular fibrous monotectics, the spacing is controlled by surface energy. For eutectics, the spacing is controlled by diffusion. Portions of this chapter came from “ Fundamentals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., this requires quite a bit of energy—the energy to form a vacancy and the energy to form an interstitial. Therefore, the probability is quite low. A more realistic, and lower-energy method, is the Schottky mechanism ( Fig. 2.3 ), in which vacancies originate at free surfaces and move by diffusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... surface energy and thereby facilitating the creation of new surfaces in the holes and voids of the craze. An equation that separates these two perceived effects has been developed ( Ref 23 ): σ c = 3 [ ( 2 γ β s r ) + ( 4.3   σ y β p...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the creation of an interface between the solid and liquid, it creates an increase in the free energy of the system. The surface energy required for a sphere of surface area 4π r 2 is 4π r 2 σ, where σ is the surface energy per unit area and is shown as increasing the free energy of the system in Fig. 2.14...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... were to grow in this material, then the amount of elastic strain energy per unit volume would be reduced, because the applied load cannot be supported across the faces of the fracture surface. Consider Fig. 7.15 , where a material containing a through-thickness crack of length 2 a is illustrated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of the surface energy of the crack, energy of plastic deformation at the crack tip, and energy of inelastic deformation of the entire specimen ( Ref 3 ). Because the latter two forms of energy absorption are a direct result of the time-dependent behavior of the polymer chains, the energy absorbed displays...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... tensions and can be readily spread on plastics surfaces. This process has been considered for some time to reduce the surface energy of plastics to accelerate crazing and cracking. It is generally agreed that surface energy reduction appears to be of secondary importance in environmental failure ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of interfacial wear arises from the popular two-term model of frictional energy dissipation ( Ref 2 ). This model states that in any frictional phenomenon, where frictional energy is released at the contact points between two sliding surfaces, there can be two types of energy dissipation—interfacial and bulk...