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surface diffusion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and above the critical potential. Some features experimentally observed for dealloying systems are then considered. The chapter concludes by briefly reviewing the proposed mechanisms for the formation of porous metals, namely ionization-redeposition mechanism, surface diffusion mechanism, volume diffusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract The design requirements for mechanical shafts, pinions, and gears often call for features with very hard surfaces (to resist wear) based on a softer core (to avoid brittle fracture). This chapter explains how to selectively harden steel by diffusing carbon and nitrogen atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of a surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... This appendix discusses the advantages of boost/diffuse carburizing cycles. A table lists typical carburizing constants and boost/diffusion ratios needed to obtain a 0.80 to 0.90% surface carbon content in a low-alloy, low-carbon steel. A figure illustrates possible carbon penetration profiles from boost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... welding techniques, defect prevention, fixturing, heat treatments, and general practices, including the use of filler metals. It also discusses several solid-state welding methods, superplastic forming, and transient liquid phase bonding, a type of diffusion welding process. The chapter includes extensive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides practical information on surface treatments that work by altering the surface chemistry of metals and alloys. It discusses the use of phosphate and chromate conversion coatings as well as anodizing, steam oxidation, diffusion coatings, and pack...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... reasons such changes are required. It describes several types of treatments, including stress relieving, in-process annealing, full annealing, solution annealing, coating diffusion, and precipitation hardening. It discusses the temperatures, holding times, and heating and cooling rates necessary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... temperatures, hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... materials, both metals and nonmetals. However, diffusion bonding requires a smooth surface finish to provide intimate contact of parts, a high temperature, and a high pressure: (a) to allow intimate contact of the parts along the bond interface, followed by plastic deformation of the surface asperities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... hardening, case (surface) hardening, and nitriding as well as hard chrome plating, vapor deposition, and thermal diffusion coating. It explains how to measure wear resistance using various tests and provides guidelines for selecting tool materials, treatments, and coatings. chemical vapor deposition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... A and D B are the intrinsic diffusivities of A and B , respectively. D A and D B are concentration dependent. Diffusion is much more rapid along free surfaces and grain boundaries than within the interior of the crystalline lattice. In general, the diffusion is highest on free...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... mm (0.004 in.) in depth, in a variety of steels. Nitrogen is adsorbed on the surface of the steel, diffuses inward at temperatures of approximately 500 °C (930 °F), and hardening is accomplished by precipitation of very fine nitride particles in the diffusion zone. Depending on nitrogen concentration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... of surface energy and high temperatures that results in bonding and densification. At first, the particles bond with no appreciable shrinkage (first-stage sintering), and then grain boundaries form at the particle contacts to enable grain-boundary diffusion and densification (second-stage sintering). Finally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... Fig. 12.12 Direct oxidation. Oxide forms by diffusion of anions and electrons to the oxide-air surface. Diffusion and electron transport through Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 are very slow because they are very free of defects. Hence, they are very protective. For an oxide to be protective, it must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... , Sci. Res. Essays , Vol 5 , 2010 , p 1274 – 1283 • Fisher T.P. and Fisher C. , The Basic Principles of Electrophoretic Paint Deposition and Its Application to the Development of Coating Systems for Metal Powders on Metal Substrates for Subsequent Diffusion Treatment , Surf. Technol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdmht.t52060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-343-0
... a high energy source, such as temperature, to provide the driving force to induce atomic events. Bonds at a free surface are easier to break than those along a grain boundary; hence, surface diffusion occurs more readily than diffusion along grain boundaries. Similarly, atomic bonds at grain boundaries...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... In the second stage, the backbone binder melts, decomposes, and evaporates during heating to the sintering temperature. Then, sinter bonds grow to provide strength. Surface diffusion is the usual means for bonding, prior to densification. For cases where the structure is not saturated with binder, first-stage...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... at which carbon can diffuse from the surface to the interior of the steel. Carbon is introduced by the use of gaseous atmospheres (gas carburizing), salt baths (liquid carburizing), solid compounds (pack carburizing), and plasma and vacuum carburizing (as discussed in Chapter 22, “Surface Modification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... 23.1.4 Porosity in Welds 23.1.5 Surface Preparation 23.1.6 Filler Metals and Feed Rates 23.1.7 Shielding Selected References Selected References • Bosworth T.J. , 1972 . Diffusion Welding of Beryllium, Part I: Basic Studies , Weld. J. Res. Suppl. , Vol 51 ( No. 12 ), p 579s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... such as induction and flame hardening or by surface diffusion processes such as carburizing and carbonitriding. Raja et al. have reported that case carburizing is one of the most common heat treatments for steel, accounting for 50% of all surface treatments (Ref 1) . Case carburizing involves the creation...