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surface area measurement

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
...) ( E ″ X − E ″ M ) = ( ϕ S,a − ϕ S,c ) − ( ϕ M,a − ϕ M,c ) Fig. 4.1 Schematic representation of measurements of potentials along a path from anode to cathode area on a corroding surface However, since the metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... relies on measuring the particle mass versus the particle surface area. There are several possible analysis approaches. Most instruments measure a single geometric parameter and assume a spherical shape. Some of the possible measurement parameters are the particle surface area, projected area or shadow...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... regarding Fig. 3.2 : The profile in Fig. 3.2b shows the surface height variation relative to a mean reference line when the error of form and waviness have been removed. By definition, the areas above and below this mean line are equal. Surface roughness can then be defined as a measure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... and the measurement is made. The operator looks down at the sample surface and moves the sample parallel to the front edge of the sample a distance of about one-fifth this length. The sample is focused and measured. This procedure is repeated until five rows of five evenly spaced measurements are made. The 25 areas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... a x A p ( h c ) ideal pyramid: A p = G 2 h c 2 Area A A s ( h ) is the surface up to the distance, h = h c + h e , from the tip of the indenter A p ( h c ) is the projected contact area up to the calculated distance, h c , from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... processes. At present, they are generally not well suited for measuring castings, because of their high cost and because it is difficult to make precise measurements on components having a complex shape with curved or as-cast surfaces. As these laser methods become more widely used in other industries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... a defined length or area. Both use the same individual height measurements of the surfaces peaks and valleys, but use different formula as described in ASME B46.1. Note that RMS values are more sensitive to single surface flaws than Ra. Optics typically use Scratch/dig standards. Scratch is a subjective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... be analyzed based on energy dissipation. It describes the stick-slip behavior observed in wiper blades, the concept of asperities, and the significance of the shape, lay, roughness, and waviness of surfaces in sliding contact. It explains how friction forces are measured and how they are influenced by speed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... superimposed on a metallographic specimen is counted. This makes it possible to determine the mean lineal intercept length ( l ¯ ); from this measurement, the value of G can be determined. This method is a measure related to the surface area per unit volume, S V (Jeffries and Sauver Ref 9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... area to its projected area. R L is measured directly from a vertical section of the fracture surface. Experimental R L reported for various materials vary between 1.06 and 2.39. For a fracture surface with randomly oriented surface elements and no overlap, R S = 2. The best fit to all known...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... if it is only flattened peaks on surface features. Tribotests that involve significant apparent area of contact, like the thrust washer test illustrated in Fig. 5.10 , often require very long test times to get measurable wear unless you are testing a very poor combination. For example, an ASTM standard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... including controlling the frame-grabber card, measurement of various features of the image, and analysis of these features. Various feature specifics and global parameters measured by image analysis software are length, area, perimeter, equivalent diameter, Feret diameter, area fraction, volume fraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (micron bar is 1500 μm long). (c) Typical fatigue striations on strain bar fracture (micron bar is 10 μm). (d) Typical worn area on strain bar fracture (micron bar is 10 μm) Fig. 6 SEM fractographs of the fracture surfaces of cracks 1 and 2 in the strain bar. (a) Fracture surface of crack 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... atomic layers on samples. The depth profiling analysis can be used to measure thickness and stoichiometry of surface films. The focused electron beam allows analysis of areas as small as 100nm. The higher magnification optical images of typical QFP leads and BGA spheres are shown in Figure 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.9781627083553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion occurs. Area, Distance, and Geometric Effects Factors such as area ratios, distance between electrically connected materials, and geometric shapes also affect galvanic-corrosion behavior. Area Effects Area effects in galvanic corrosion involve the ratio of the surface area...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... be readily determined. Measuring involves overall dimensions, inside and outside diameters, depths of holes, radii, thread sizes, and surface finishes. Depths of pits and lengths of cracks can also be measured if present. Most such measurements are simple, but some require very specialized equipment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... like a miniature cup; it has a central depressed at-face region surrounded by a shear lip. The other fracture surface looks like a miniature truncated cone. cupping test. A mechanical test used to determine the ductility and drawing properties of sheet metal. It consists of measuring the maximum depth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.9781627083461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... if such dimensions are biased within the tolerance band. Techniques in this area include standard measuring equipment, optical comparators, coordinate-measuring machines, surface-finish gages, scales, and torque wrenches. Nondestructive test approaches for evaluating internal component positions and relationships...