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surface activation

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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 17 18% Ni maraging steel (300 CVM), solution treated 1 h at 815 °C (1500 °F), surface activated, and gas nitrided 24 h at 440 °C (825 °F). Etching has made the nitride surface layer and grain-boundary nitrides appear black. Modified Fry’s reagent. 1000× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 16 H13 steel, heated to 1030 °C (1890 °F) in a vacuum, quenched in nitrogen gas, triple tempered at 510 °C (950 °F), surface activated in manganese phosphate, and gas nitrided 24 h at 525 °C (975 °F). White surface layer is iron nitride. Grain-boundary networks of nitride are present More
Image
Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 12 AMS 6470 steel with 0.15 to 0.35% Pb added, oil quenched from 900 °C (1650 °F), tempered 2 h at 605 °C (1125 °F), surface activated in manganese phosphate, and gas nitrided 30 h at 525 °C (975 °F). Structure is a white layer of Fe 2 N and a matrix of tempered martensite. 2% nital. 400× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 15 4140 steel, oil quenched from 845 °C (1550 °F), tempered 2 h at 620 °C (1150 °F), surface activated in manganese phosphate, and gas nitrided 24 h at 525 °C (975 °F). Structure is white layer of Fe 2 N, Fe 3 N, and Fe 4 N, and tempered martensite. 2% nital. 400× More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... (1650 °F), tempered 2 h at 605 °C (1125 °F), surface activated in manganese phosphate, and gas nitrided 30 h at 525 °C (975 °F). Structure is a white layer of Fe 2 N and a matrix of tempered martensite. 2% nital. 400× Fig. 13 Same material and heat treating conditions as described in Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... for the joining atmosphere to be highly inert so as to prevent the formation of nonmetallic films or skins on the surface of the braze, which will defeat the intended role of the active constituent. A vacuum of 10 mPa (10 –6 psi) is normally required to achieve this condition. Other atmospheres that have been...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of the more noble to the more active members(s). The area ratio is unfavorable when the surface area of the more noble metal or alloy is large in comparison to the more active member and the galvanic couple is under cathodic control. Under these conditions, the anodic current density on the more active metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... concentration corrosion behavior electrochemical cell CORROSION OF METALS in aqueous environments is electrochemical in nature involving two or more electrochemical reactions taking place on the metal surface. As a result, some of the elements of the metal or alloy change from a metallic state into a non...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... and Fe 3 O 4 (and/or Fe(OH) 2 ) will form at about –560 mV (SHE) when dissolution of the iron has increased the activity to a Fe 2+ = 10 –4 . Further increase in potential will cause additional conversion to Fe 3 O 4 , and above about –200 mV (SHE), Fe 2 O 3 is predicted to form on the surface...
Image
Published: 01 July 2000
Fig. 7.33 (a) Schematic polarization curve for iron showing passivity (curve A), active corrosion (curve B), and for oxygen reduction (curve C). (b) Effective polarization curve (curve E) when pitting has activated 1% of the surface (Details can be found in text.) More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mdsbktmse.t56070001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-451-2
... – 16146 , May 2019 , 10.1021/acsami.8b22496 8. Khan A.M. , Wu H. , Ma Q. , Chung Y.-W. , and Wang Q.J. , “ Relating Tribological Performance and Tribofilm Formation to the Adsorption Strength of Surface-Active Precursors ,” Tribol. Lett. , Vol 68 , (No. 1 ), p 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Resin polymerized from acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, esters of these acids, or acrylonitrile. activation. The changing of a passive surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast with passivation. active. The negative direction of electrode potential. Also used to describe corrosion and its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... will favor formation of Cr 3 C 2 on the surface and/or in the underlying metal. As carbon diffuses farther into the alloy’s interior, carbon activities will be lowered, thus favoring Cr 7 C 3 . Moving even farther into the interior, carbon activities will be further reduced, favoring the formation of Cr 23...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dsktmse.t56050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-432-1
... present in the interior of solids. The mobility of surface atoms is higher, and hence the activation energy ( Q a ) in surface diffusion is lower than in grain-boundary diffusion and bulk diffusion (i.e., Q a surface < Q a grain boundary < Q a bulk). Diffusion in Oxides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to corrode, or being corroded. active potential. The potential of a corroding material. aeration cell (oxygen cell). See differential aeration cell. aerobic. Exposed to oxygen. alclad. Composite wrought product comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on one or both surfaces a metallurgically bonded alumi...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., by addition of a substance to the annealed powder. A powder that is heat treated powder or by changing sintering conditions. to render it soft and compactible. activation. The enlargement of the surface free anodic polarization. The change of the elec energy or lattice binding energy of a solid. trode...
Image
Published: 01 November 2019
a negative bias and the p-substrate silicon has a positive bias. Electrical conduction occurs when the probe tip comes in contact with the Source/Drain contacts and Well tie contacts as the tip scans the surface. Negative current (electrons) flow into the grounded probe tip from the Source/Drain active More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dsktmse.t56050031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-432-1
... concentration of 0.45 wt% at a depth of 2 mm (0.1 in.) from the surface. Assume that the surface carbon content is kept constant at 1.3 wt% C and the treatment temperature is held at 1000 °C (1830 °F). The activation energy for diffusion of carbon in gamma iron is 148 kJ/mol and D = 1.93 × 10 −11 m 2 /s...