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superheater tubes

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... pathways, and relevant test and measurement procedures. It describes life assessment methods based on hardness, wall thickness, scale formation, microstructure, and creep. It also includes a case study on the determination of the residual life of a secondary superheater tube. boiler tubes remaining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... susceptible to corrosion. This chapter describes some of the problems that the pulp and paper industry has solved as well as ongoing issues and concerns. It includes an in-depth review of 304L cladding failures involving coextruded composite tubes used as floor tunes in the lower furnace, as superheater tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... alloys. It also discusses corrosion protection methods for furnace waterwalls and superheater tubes in waste-to-energy boilers. corrosion corrosion protection superheaters waste incinerators waste-to-energy boilers Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a combination of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... toughness, whereas strength and hardness decrease. Phase analysis can be done by area or volume fraction measurements per ASTM E562-11 ( Ref 5.5 ). Figure 5.3 and the tabulated data give the results of volume fraction measurement in terms of the percentage of bainite and martensite for a superheater tube...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... waterwall tubes, superheater (SH) or reheater (RH) tubes, and economizer tubes ( Ref 4.1 ). A header is a thick-walled pipe penetrated by a number of tubes. These heavy-section components have to handle creep and mechanical fatigue, whereas for tubing applications, thermal fatigue is not a key issue because...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., intended to reduce NOx emissions, accelerates tube wall wastage. It also covers circumferential cracking in furnace waterwalls, thermal fatigue cracking induced by waterlances and water cannons, superheater-reheater corrosion, and erosion in fluidized-bed boilers. coal-fired boilers combustion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... explains how oil-ash corrosion affects waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters as well as metal tube supports and hangers. fireside corrosion oil-ash corrosion oil-fired boilers refinery furnaces waterwall corrosion Fuel oils primarily consist of residues from distillation of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... such other areas of the boiler that are subjected to departure from nucleate boiling or rapidly fluctuating flow conditions. It is also observed in superheaters subjected to vibrations of low amplitude. Waterwall tubes in pulverized coal power boilers often show circumferential cracking in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... waterwalls, superheater, and reheater tubes carrying water or steam in a boiler are all susceptible to overheating failure ( Ref 6.1 , 6.5 ). Fracture due to overheating generally takes place along the longitudinal axis of the tube, but at times it can be accompanied by fracture in the circumferential...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... combustion atmospheres with excess air or oxygen. Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and superheater/reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... particles. Fly ash erosion is a matter of concern especially when dealing with low-grade coal with high ash content. Fly ash erosion is mainly observed in primary superheater and low-temperature superheater bends and tubes, screen tubes, the inlet section of steam reheater tubes, and areas of economizer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... hydroquinones, hydroxylamines, and ketones to keep dissolved oxygen typically below 5 ppb in an AVT program. No nonvolatile solids are permitted when AVT is implemented. Frequent and recurring failures were taking place in the superheater tubes of a once-through boiler. A preliminary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... leads to the formation of Na 2 SO 4 vapors, which then condense together with fly-ash particles on the pendant superheater and reheater tubes (i.e., in the hot section of the boiler). Similarly, in the case of oil-fired boilers, the combustion products of fuel oil contain sulfur, typically as Na 2 SO 4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... in this respect. Inadvertent use of plain carbon steel in superheater and reheater sections instead of alloy steels is a classic case of wrong material selection. Forming defects very rarely cause tube failures because of inspections of incoming raw material used for tube making, on-line...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... fire-side corrosion: For example, waterwall fireside corrosion, superheater/reheater fireside corrosion, and acid dew point corrosion The process of oxidation of iron is known as rusting or corrosion . The interaction of steam and water at the internal surface of the tube usually gives rise...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials. alloying elements austenitic stainless steels boiler tubes condenser tubes continuous cooling transformation diagram creep-resistant steels ferritic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... its saturation temperature. The steam from the drum passes to the superheater coils placed in the flue gas path. The superheater coils may consist of one or more stages of tube banks arranged to effectively transfer heat from the flue gases. Here, steam picks up extra energy from hot flue gases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... tubes with a corrosion-resistant alloy cladding on the outer diameter have long been available for construction of waterwalls as well as superheaters in boilers. Composite tubes manufactured by a spiral weld overlaying process have been made available in recent years. These composite tubes use the outer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... their carryover to the upper portions of the furnace where they may otherwise deposit on the tubes. Such carryover deposits are particularly found in the superheater section, and may consist of soot, ash, and slag. Deposits decrease the boiler efficiency by reducing heat transfer. The heat transfer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... rupture of heater tube: (a) heater tube that failed due to stress rupture; (b) and (c) stress rupture voids near the fracture. Source: Ref 3 Fig. 6 Thick-lip “fishmouth” failure of a 2-in.-diam superheater tube. The tube bent away from the fracture due to the reaction force of the escaping...