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supercritical water oxidation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... a tangent tube design for waterwalls where no membranes are used to connect adjacent tubes. In terms of the operating pressure of the water/steam in the waterwalls, there are two classifications of boilers: subcritical and supercritical units. The subcritical unit is the boiler that operates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... not only reduce fuel costs, but also reduce CO 2 emission, sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, and water use. The improvement in plant efficiency, which is possible only with a rise in the operating steam temperatures and pressures, is mainly governed by the metallurgy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.9781627082532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., above the allowable design temperature. Case Study 3—Failure Investigation of a Reheater Tube of a Supercritical Boiler Background Details Failure was noticed in the reheater tube of a coal-based supercritical boiler. It was indicated by an increase in make-up water consumption as well...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
.... The film was measured optically during drying. As water evaporates, the capillary stress increases to generate a stress approaching 2 MPa (0.29 ksi). This stress falls as saturation declines, reaching approximately 0.3 MPa (0.04 ksi) when the funicular state transforms to the pendular state near 20...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., bromides, iodides, and fluorides), sulfur-bearing compounds (such as H2S and sulfur-oxyanions), high-temperature and supercritical water, and caustics (such as NaOH), while accounting for temperature, composition, microstructure, properties, environmental contaminants, and other factors. The chapter also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in a supercritical coal-fired boiler. Courtesy of Welding Services Inc. The preferential sulfidation penetration formed in steels was found to consist of essentially iron oxides in the outer region of the penetration with the inner region (core) including channels being essentially iron sulfides (see the SEM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... debinding takes place in water. Most common are polyethylene oxide, polyvinyl alcohol, and polyethylene glycol. wax polymer. A general term for polymers used as binders that consist of low-molecularweight polymers and wax llers. The polymers are usually simple molecules, such as polyethylene...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... S as water soluble SO 3 43.4 44.1 Na as water soluble Na 2 O 31.8 32.6 V as water soluble V 2 O 5 10.9 6.8 V as water insoluble V 2 O 5 1.0 4.1 Fe as water insoluble Fe 2 O 3 2.6 4.5 Ni as water insoluble NiO 1.3 2.0 Other metal oxides 9.0 5.9 Source: Ref 4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... are exposed to air and/or moisture. In fact, a damaged oxide film can generally reheal itself instantaneously if at least traces (i.e., parts per million) of oxygen or water (moisture) are present in the environment. When titanium is not corrosion resistant, it is because the film is not fully protective...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... ferrite are apparent. Fig. 10.3 Microstructure of 17-4 PH water quenched from 1260 °C (2300 °F) during hydrogen sintering, showing emergence of white delta ferrite colonies. The dark regions are mostly pores, although some small circular oxide inclusions are present. Sintering temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the effects of corrosion on boiler tube surfaces exposed to water and steam. It describes the process of corrosion, the formation of scale, and the oxides of iron from which it forms. It addresses the primary types of corrosion found in boiler environments...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... to create bowls and mugs. It is a simple idea: combine powder consisting of clay (potassium-aluminum-silicon oxides) with water, and possibly fats or oils, to form a paste that is responsive to stress. Often a pottery wheel is employed to shape that mass. Then, the water is removed and heat is applied...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... • Water + hydrogen sulfide + light hydrocarbons • Zinc chloride • • Zinc fluorosilicate • After initial visual examination of the general conditional state of the component and contained fracture surfaces, corrosion products should...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., whereas the wrought stainless steel flanges suffered significant weight loss ( Fig. 11.7 ). Fig. 11.7 Oxidation of wrought and powder metallurgy stainless steel flanges The oxide scales formed on the wrought flanges spalled off periodically during water quenching, which resulted in weight...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... °C (2400 °F). Water-atomized stainless steel powders typically contain from1800 to 3500 ppm oxygen, much of which is concentrated at the surface of powder particles in the form of oxides of silicon, manganese, and chromium. From the point of view of dimensional control, the lot-to-lot oxygen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
...</xref>) Table 5.3. Failure mechanisms for boiler tubing ( Ref 1 ) Stress-rupture Short-term overheating High-temperature creep Dissimilar-metal welds Water-side corrosion Caustic corrosion Hydrogen damage Pitting (localized corrosion) Stress-corrosion cracking Fire-side...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... that during hardening treatment, the steel is not subjected to isothermal holding but rather subjected to continuous cooling by quenching into some medium such as oil or water that rapidly extracts heat from the workpiece. Thus in practice, transformation during heat treatment occurs by continuous cooling...