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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ranges, distinguishing features, advantages, limitations, and applications. cast iron cooling rate graphite formation cementite formation silicon aluminum nickel cobalt copper sulfur vanadium chromium tin molybdenum manganese microstructure white cast iron gray cast iron ductile...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Sulfur is one of the most common corrosive contaminants in high-temperature industrial environments and its presence can cause a number of problems, including sulfidation. This chapter describes the sulfidation behavior of a wide range of alloys as observed in three types of industrial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., bromides, iodides, and fluorides), sulfur-bearing compounds (such as H2S and sulfur-oxyanions), high-temperature and supercritical water, and caustics (such as NaOH), while accounting for temperature, composition, microstructure, properties, environmental contaminants, and other factors. The chapter also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... discussion on the causes of the various forms of corrosion associated with liquids, namely pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and erosion corrosion. The chapter also contains tables listing corrosion rates of sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... likely to sustain. The chapter also explains how carburization affects creep strength and fracture toughness, and how surface conditions and finish and the presence of sulfur affect metal dusting behaviors. carburization metal dusting thermodynamics Metals and alloys are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...) and, in some cases, carbon and sulfur in metals. This chapter discusses the operating principles of XRF, OES, combustion and inert gas fusion analysis, surface analysis, and scanning auger microprobe analysis. The details of equipment set-up used for chemical composition analysis as well as the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... 3.75 g/L Boiling Nil 7.5 g/L Boiling 2.74 Sulfamic acid + 0.375 g/L FeCl 3 7.5 g/L Boiling 0.030 Sulfur, molten 100 240 (464) Nil Sulfur monochloride ... 202 (396) =1.09 Sulfur dioxide, dry ... 21 (70) Nil Sulfur dioxide, water saturated Near 100 Room 0.003...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... oxygen in the burner zone. Under such circumstances, volatile compounds of sulfur, namely sodium and potassium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 and K 2 S 2 O 7 ), with a low melting point (450 °C, or 840 °F), form. These compounds volatilize at high temperature and condense as a liquid on the relatively...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... description of the machining behavior is provided next. One must keep in mind that these are general characteristics. Further alloying of these families, such as with a sulfur addition, can result in a radical change in machining behavior. Metallurgists have long known that the presence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... pulp and paper industry. Since these early beginnings, several organizations now offer anodic protection equipment and services. Anodic protection has been used most extensively to protect equipment for storage and handling of sulfuric acid ( Ref 10 , 11 ). Several companies advertise their...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... deposit revealed presence of significant amounts of sulfur ( Fig. CH34.4 ). In some places, deep secondary cracks were seen on the fracture surface. Fig. CH34.3 Mud cracking on the oxide layer of fracture surface Fig. CH34.4 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrum of the fracture surface. Note...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and correction of the reagent application. Direct print : in the case of sulfur prints ( Ref 4 ), a sheet of photographic paper soaked in the proper etchant is placed on the ground surface of the specimen. A print of the sulfur and sulfides distribution in the steel is revealed as a mirror image...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... and marine environments and chemical environments such as sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, nitric acid, strong bases, and organic acids, such as acetic and formic. Pickling is an example of controlled, accelerated uniform corrosion. This is typically done with 10 to 20% hot sulfuric acid or a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., sulfuric, and nitric acids are all strong acids, and yet the corrosion behavior of steel in them differs widely. Two of the keys to understanding this diversity of behavior are the oxidizing power of the acid environment and the tendency for passivation of steel in the environment. It is useful to contrast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... iron can vary between 0.1 and 0.6%, depending on whether a ferritic or pearlitic structure is desired. The phosphorus content should be less than 0.06% in order to obtain maximum ductility from the matrix. Although CG iron has been produced from base irons having sulfur contents as high as 0.07 to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur) appear next to each other in the third row from the top of the periodic table, where they have been shaded to highlight their importance. Improvements in steel-processing techniques in the last two decades of the 1900s have allowed the industry to lower the residual level...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stainless. Once the steel has been deoxidized, sulfur can be readily removed by contact with a basic slag. Sulfur can be reduced to less than 0.001% in the AOD, and this excellent purity level is commercially furnished without additional price premium. Sulfur, although a harmful impurity from a corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Element Composition, % Ferritic Pearlitic Total carbon 2.2-2.9 2.0-2.9 Silicon 0.9-1.9 0.9-1.9 Manganese 0.2-0.6 0.2-1.3 Sulfur 0.02-0.2 0.05-0.2 Phosphorus 0.02-0.2 0.02-0.2 Table 2 Effects of major and minor (tramp) elements on the annealing response and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Fig. 4 Protective and nonprotective scales formed on alloy 800. (a) Cr 2 O 3 -base protective oxide scale formed in sulfur-free oxidizing gas. (b) Sulfide-oxide scale formed in reducing conditions containing hydrogen sulfide. Courtesy of I.G. Wright, Battelle Columbus Division The latter...