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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...Corrosion rates of several austenitic stainless steels in sulfur vapor at 571 °C (1060 °F) for 1295 h Table 7.1 Corrosion rates of several austenitic stainless steels in sulfur vapor at 571 °C (1060 °F) for 1295 h Alloy Corrosion rates, mm/yr (mpy) 314 0.43 (16.9) 310 0.48...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... (such as chlorides, bromides, iodides, and fluorides), sulfur-bearing compounds (such as H2S and sulfur-oxyanions), high-temperature and supercritical water, and caustics (such as NaOH), while accounting for temperature, composition, microstructure, properties, environmental contaminants, and other factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Corrosion table for sulfuric acid (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) Table 1 (Part 1) Corrosion table for sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) Concentration, % 0.1 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 Temperature, °C 100 = BP 20 50 100 = BP 20 50 70 85 100 = BP 20 50 60 20 35...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... region represents a transition to an iron surface saturated with sulfur. Source: Ref 74 Fig. 5.35 Optical micrographs showing the microstructures of (a) alumina-former alloy 214 (Ni-16Cr-3Fe-4.5Al-Y), and several chromia-former alloys (b) 601 (Ni-23Cr-14Fe-1.4Al), (c) X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and hydrogen) and, in some cases, carbon and sulfur in metals. This chapter discusses the operating principles of XRF, OES, combustion and inert gas fusion analysis, surface analysis, and scanning auger microprobe analysis. The details of equipment set-up used for chemical composition analysis as well...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... their compositional ranges, distinguishing features, advantages, limitations, and applications. cast iron cooling rate graphite formation cementite formation silicon aluminum nickel cobalt copper sulfur vanadium chromium tin molybdenum manganese microstructure white cast iron gray cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... , The Current State of Boiler Tube Failures in Fossil Plants , Power Plant Chemistry , Vol 2 ( No. 4 ), 2000 , p 197 – 203 6.32 Andijani I. and Malik A.U. , “ Sulfur and Vanadium Induced Hot Corrosion of Boiler Tubes ,” presented at Chemistry &amp; Industry Conference , 11 – 15 Dec...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Typical AISI 303. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 3 AISI 303 chip breaking at the sulfides. Courtesy of Ugitech Fig. 4 Effect of sulfur on stainless machinability. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 5 Effect of calcium on machinability of 303. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 6 Complex Ugima oxides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... Sulfamic acid 3.75 g/L Boiling Nil 7.5 g/L Boiling 2.74 Sulfamic acid + 0.375 g/L FeCl 3 7.5 g/L Boiling 0.030 Sulfur, molten 100 240 (464) Nil Sulfur monochloride ... 202 (396) =1.09 Sulfur dioxide, dry ... 21 (70) Nil Sulfur dioxide, water saturated Near 100 Room...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... “ Standard Terminology Relating to Metallography ,” E7-15, ASTM , 2015 2. “ Guide for Preparation of Metallographic Specimens ,” E3-11, ASTM , 2011 3. “ Standard Practice for Macroetching Metals and Alloys ,” E340-15, ASTM , 2015 4. “ Standard Practice for Preparing Sulfur Prints...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...; to strong alkalis, represented by sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide at pH 14. Fig. 1 The pH of several common environments The measured pH of several common acids and alkalis are as follows: Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are strong acids and have low pH values. Boric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Anodic protection has been used most extensively to protect equipment for storage and handling of sulfuric acid ( Ref 10 , 11 ). Several companies advertise their capabilities in serving the sulfuric acid industry with anodic protection ( Ref 12 – 15 ). These organizations have applied anodic protection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... alloys in simulated evaporator liquid. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 8 Influence of alloying element on corrosion rate in contaminated sulfuric acid. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 9 Isocorrosion curves for various alloys in sulfuric acid Fig. 10 Isocorrosion curves for various alloys...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... from behind the fracture reveals the unsound center and extensive segregation. Figure 1-39 Sulfur print intensity is influenced by the composition of the sulfide inclusions. Both of the sulfur-printed discs shown contain 0.06% sulfur, but the print on the left is very light because most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... are shown in Table 6.2 . These four elements (aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur) appear next to each other in the third row from the top of the periodic table, where they have been shaded to highlight their importance. Improvements in steel-processing techniques in the last two decades of the 1900s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... manufacturing technologies. Also known as vermicular graphite cast iron, the CG irons are more widely produced in Europe than in the United States or elsewhere. Graphite Morphology Applications Carbon Equivalent Manganese and Phosphorus Contents Sulfur Content Melt Treatment Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170495
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... alloys) Improves resistance to sulfuric acid Niobium Improves high-temperature strength Improves resistance to pitting Carbide stabilization component Age-hardening component Sulfur Improves machinability Chromium Improves oxidation and sulfidation resistance Below 18% can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Influence of alloying elements on the thermodynamic activity of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen Table 1 Influence of alloying elements on the thermodynamic activity of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen i J Al C Cr Mn Mo N Ni O S Si Ti W O .04 .14 −.02 −.01...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...: Ref 2 Fig. 4 Protective and nonprotective scales formed on alloy 800. (a) Cr 2 O 3 -base protective oxide scale formed in sulfur-free oxidizing gas. (b) Sulfide-oxide scale formed in reducing conditions containing hydrogen sulfide. Courtesy of I.G. Wright, Battelle Columbus Division...