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sulfidation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Sulfur is one of the most common corrosive contaminants in high-temperature industrial environments and its presence can cause a number of problems, including sulfidation. This chapter describes the sulfidation behavior of a wide range of alloys as observed in three types of industrial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on resistance characteristics and methods of protecting different forms of high-temperature gaseous corrosion, namely high-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, carburization, hydrogen effects, and hot corrosion. high-temperature gaseous corrosion high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... and the morphology of manganese sulfide inclusions in castings. carbon content inclusions pearlite proeutectoid cementite proeutectoid ferrite We have now dealt with the structures of annealed and normalized steels containing up to about 0.25% C. The pearlite constituent becomes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... underlying alloy matrix depleted in chromium, followed (below) by internal chromium-rich sulfides. Type II hot corrosion is characterized by pitting with little or no internal attack underneath. As the chapter explains, chromium additions make alloys more resistant to all types of hot corrosion attacks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... the waterwall tubes of supercritical coal-fired boilers fired under low NOx combustion conditions, conducive to the production of sulfidizing environments. In the other case, stress contributes to brittle fracture in the form of intergranular cracking. The phenomenon, which is known by various names...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter presents the primary considerations and mechanisms for corrosion and how they are involved in the selection of materials for process equipment in petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants. In addition, specific information on mechanical properties, corrosion, sulfide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... manganese is sometimes added to steel and how unintended consequences, such as the development of sulfide stringers, can offset the benefits. It also examines the effect of alloying elements on the iron-carbon phase diagram, particularly their effect on transformation temperatures. alloying elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... martensitic stainless steels and describes sulfide stress corrosion resistance of type 410 weldments. hydrogen-induced cracking martensitic stainless steel sulfide stress corrosion resistance weld corrosion welding weldments MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS are essentially Fe-Cr-C alloys that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., macro- and microsegregation, and hot cracking, as well as the effects of solidification and remelting on castings, ingots, and continuous cast products. It explains how to determine where defects originate in continuous casters and how to control alumina, sulfide, and nitride inclusions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., beryllium oxide, beryllium oxide carboxylates, beryllium perchlorate, beryllium phosphates, beryllium sulfate, and beryllium sulfide. beryllium compounds BERYLLIUM forms a wide range of inorganic and organic compounds. Some of the most important families of compounds and their synthesis are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... extremely beneficial in increasing the machinability of stainless steels. Generally, as the molten metal cools to solid form, sulfur combines with manganese to form manganese sulfide inclusions. Manganese becomes a very important variable during this reaction. Two basic sulfide forms are found in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... contains harmful ingredients. The result is increasing demand for steels with greater strength and corrosion resistance. Martensitic and duplex stainless steels have provided the corrosion resistance and strength to deal with higher levels of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, chlorides, and acidity. This...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... , ISIJ Int. , 1995 , 35 , 937 . 10.2355/isijinternational.35.937 13. Farrar J.C.M. and Dolby R.E. , Sulfide Inclusions in Steel , de Barbadillo J J. and Snape E. , Ed., American Society for Metals , 1975 , p 252 . 14. Croll J.E. , J. Aust. Inst. Met...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... contrast between ferrite grains. Produces good distinction between lightly tempered martensite and ferrite. Delineates cementite networks. Reveals chemical segregation. The reagent deposits a complex oxide-sulfide-sulfate film on the surface, a film which is colored in shades of brown and is very...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... • Schutt H.U. and Rhodes P.R. , “ Corrosion in the Aqueous Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia, Oxygen System ,” Paper 331, presented at Corrosion/95 , NACE International, 1995 • Tebbal S. , Kane R.D. , and Yamada K. , Assessment of the Corrosivity of Crude Fractions from Varying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
.... Sci. , Vol A148 , 1991 , p 1 – 6 10.1016/0921-5093(91)90859-L 30. “Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Material for Oil Field Equipment,” NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 (latest revision), Material Requirement , NACE International 31. “Controlling Weld Hardness of Carbon Steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., the steel was exposed to an excessive temperature for an extended period of time. An example of an improperly carbonitrided surface is shown in Fig. 3.31 which represents a quenched AISI/SAE 1117 steel shaft (this is a resulfurized steel that contains a high density of manganese sulfide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... immersion in neutral 3.5% sodium chloride solution. NACE Standard Test TM-01-77-86: Testing materials for resistance to sulfide stress cracking at ambient temperatures. ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156: Sulfide stress-corrosion cracking resistant metallic materials for oil field equipment. ASTM G47...