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substructure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., a series of low-expansion iron-nickel alloys was introduced under the trade names Invar and Nilo. Electroformed nickel has the advantage that it can be made into complex contours and does not require a thick faceplate. When backed with an open tubular-type substructure, this kind of tool has excellent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... strength. Gaps can also trap metal chips and contribute to backside hole splintering. If the skin is composite and the substructure is metal, and if an appreciable gap is present during fastener installation, the composite skin will often crack and delaminate. If both the skin and substructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. , Vol 17 , 1976 , p 399 – 404 18.21 Furuhara T. , Morito S. , and Maki T. , Morphology, Substructure and Crystallography of Lath Martensite in Fe-C Alloys , J. Phys. IV France , Vol 112 , 2003 , p 255 – 258 10.1051/jp4:2003877 18.22 Muir H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... density. Figure 11.2 shows changes in dislocation substructure that have developed with increasing strain in a 0.05C-0.29Mn-0.03Al steel. High-resolution, high-magnification transmission electron microscopy of thin foils reveals the dislocations as thin linear features. As strain increases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... bonded or cocured high-performance aerospace structures. Fig. 9.21 Cocured unitized control surface. Source: The Boeing Company Fig. 9.22 Pressure application for unitized cocured structure Fig. 9.23 Machining substructure spar mandrels and filler blocks. Photo source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... and reduces ductility. Annealing restores ductility of strained ferrite by producing recrystallization , a mechanism of microstructural change in which strain-free grains nucleate and grow on heating. Recrystallization is driven by the high strain energy stored in dislocation substructure produced by cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... and contributes to the high strength of martensite. Fig. 16.5 Iron atom displacements due to carbon atoms in martensite. Source: Ref 16.5 In addition to the solid solution strengthening by carbon, the substructure of martensite also contributes to strength. Chapter 5, “Martensite,” showed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... precipitates and crystal defects, and for the characterization of such features, electron microscopy must be used. In view of the fact that light microscopy was the only technique initially available, finer features now resolvable are often referred to as substructures. The electron microscope can resolve...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., elongated morphology, readily resolved in the light microscope. Figure 7.8 shows WF crystals formed in HSLA steel by isothermal transformation of austenite at 600 °C (1110 °F) for 100 s ( Ref 7.13 ). The elongated WF crystals appear uniformly white, with no evidence of substructure within individual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., resistant to etching, develop sporadically during heavy rail use ( Ref 15.24 – 15.28 ). The white etching layers (WEL) have high hardness and are associated with the development of ripples or corrugations in rail and eventually cracking. Intensive evaluation of the structure and substructure of the white...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
...-M2122 , National Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Institute , Amsterdam , 1964 10.22 Pratt J.E. , Dislocation Substructure in Strain-Cycled Copper as Influenced by Temperature, T. & A.M. Report 663, Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics , University of Illinois...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... and other results that the mechanisms do in fact differ considerably, and Oblak and Hehemann ( Ref 128 ) showed that it was possible to distinguish between Widmanstätten ferrite, upper bainite, and lower bainite by electron microscopical study of the substructures. On this point, Bain and Paxton ( Ref 91...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... minimize damage to edge of ply and help to prevent delamination. 16. Never terminate plies in fastener patterns. Reduces profiling requirements on substructure. Prevents delamination caused by hold drilling. Improves bearing strength. 17. Stacking order of plies should be balanced and symmetrical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of Beryllium Reduced from Bulky Specimens , Compt. Rend. , Vol. 246 , p 1688 Saulnier A. , and Mirand P. , 1960 . Electron Micrography of Films of Beryllium Reduced from Bulky Specimens, Exhibiting Substructure and Dislocations , Compt. Rend. , Vol 250 , p 709 Sloman H.A...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... substructure and small carbides. Grade ASTM A542. (f) Dislocation substructure and small carbides in bainite. (a), (b), and (c) Etchant: nital. (d), (e), and (f): TEM. Courtesy of F. Abe, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan. Fig. 14.24 F22 steel quenched and tempered to 22 HRC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... than for metallic structure. Some of the potential problems with fastener installation are shown in Fig. 10.8 . Unshimmed gaps can cause cracking of either the composite skin or the composite substructure (or both) as the fastener is being installed and pulls the two pieces together. In fuel tanks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... titanium mesh anodes on a sidewalk and a bridge substructure are shown in Fig. 13(a) and (b) , respectively. The expanded titanium metal anodes are coated with a grouting material after application to the concrete structure. Figure 14 shows polymer mesh anodes used to protect reinforcing steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Recovered Substructure in Dynamic Recrystallization , Deformation, Processing, and Structure , Krauss G. , Ed., American Society of Metals , 1984 , p 231 – 243 8.43 Sellars C.M. , Static Recrystallization and Precipitation during Hot Rolling of Microalloyed Steels , Deformation...