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substitutional solid solutions

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract When a metal is alloyed with another metal, either substitutional or interstitial solid solutions are usually formed. This chapter discusses the general characteristics of these solutions and the effects of several alloying elements on the yield strength of pure metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain morphology. It then discusses the concept of solid solutions, the difference between substitutional and interstitial solid solubility, the effect of alloying elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... some of the metallurgical effects of freezing or solidification, including the segregation of solutes and the formation of metal glasses. freezing interstitial solid solutions metal glasses phase diagrams phase relations phases substitutional solid solutions Phases Solid Solutions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... by the simu taneous formation of a vacancy and an interstitial atom. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 21 Schottky mechanism of vacancy formation Fig. 22 Types of solid solutions. Two-dimensional model shows (a) the substitutional type, in which the solute atoms substitute at positions of the solvent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... Depending on the relative sizes of the solute and solvent atoms in both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions, the solute atoms typically distort the crystalline structure to some extent. This distortion roughens the crystallographic slip planes along which atoms can most easily move, and reduces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is usually present in steels as a solid solution of iron containing carbon or one or more alloying elements such as silicon, chromium, manganese, and nickel. Carbon is an interstitial element, while the larger elements are substitutional. Carbon occupies specific interstitial sites in the bcc iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... to those of iron that do not combine to form carbides, nitrides, or other compounds merely substitute for iron atoms in fcc austenite or bcc ferrite crystals and are said to be in substitutional solid solution. The smaller atoms such as carbon and nitrogen, as noted earlier, go into the interstitial sites...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... stainless steel. Chromium atoms are similar in size to iron atoms, so when chromium is alloyed in iron at a level of no more than 11% Cr, the chromium atoms replace some of the iron atoms, thus forming a substitutional solid solution (see Fig. 3b ), and this iron-chromium material has much-improved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., the liquid, L , field is a homogenous liquid solution composed of both copper and nickel. The solid solution, α, that exists at lower temperatures is a substitutional solid solution consisting of both copper and nickel atoms with a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. When an alloy of any given...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... cases, the diffusion of these elements in substitutional solid solution is significantly slower than the diffusion of carbon, and, therefore, they slow the transformation of austenite to pearlite. If parts made from plain carbon steels are too thick, their centers may not cool fast enough to avoid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., and nickel. Carbon is an interstitial element, while the larger elements are substitutional. Carbon occupies specific interstitial sites in the bcc iron crystalline lattice, while the larger substitutional elements replace or substitute for iron atoms. The two types of solid solutions impart different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... of intermetallic phases. These are distinct from solutions based on the pure components because they have a different crystal structure and may also be highly ordered. Fig. 3.18 Schematic representation of solid solutions. (a) Ordered substitutional. (b) Clustering. (c) Random interstitial. Adapted from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... on the steel) other elements (such as silicon, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, and/or nickel) that replace the iron atoms in the bcc solid solution. Interstitial alloying elements also have a much stronger influence on the properties of iron than substitutional alloying elements. Even a small addition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... elements, the alloy is an interstitial solid solution. When an atom substitutes for an iron atom in the FCC or BCC lattice, a substitutional solid solution forms. Substitutional elements, such as nickel, chromium, and manganese, have atomic diameters similar to iron. Interstitial and substitutional solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... 81 ] Fig. 4.8 Twinned grains and twin boundary Fig. 4.9 Basic types of phase diagram. a, melt; b, melt + solid crystals; c, solid solution (homogeneous); d, two different crystals (heterogeneous); E, eutectic point; P, peritectic point [ Wie 86 ] Fig. 4.10 Structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
...-crystal superalloy Fig. 3.1 Schematics for (a) a bcc unit cell, (b) a bcc crystal lattice, and (c) and (d) a polycrystalline solid with grains and grain boundaries Fig. 3.2 Schematics showing (a) substitutional and (b) interstitial solid solutions Fig. 3.3 Pictorial views...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Diffusion is the movement of atoms through the crystalline lattice. This chapter discusses the two main types of diffusion that can occur in solids: interstitial diffusion and substitutional diffusion. It describes Fick's first and second laws of diffusion, with emphasis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., the liquid, L , field is a homogeneous liquid solution composed of both copper and nickel. The solid solution, α, that exists at lower temperatures is a substitutional solid solution consisting of both copper and nickel atoms with a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. When an alloy of any given...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... A given structure, which can have a certain range of compositions, is what is meant by a phase , just as a gas or liquid is a phase. In solid metals, there can be a number of phases coexisting simultaneously. Stainless steel is an exceptional alloy system in that it is not a dilute solution. Alloy steels...