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substitutional solid solution

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... the metallurgical effects of freezing or solidification, including the segregation of solutes and the formation of metal glasses. freezing interstitial solid solutions metal glasses phase diagrams phase relations phases substitutional solid solutions References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid-to-solid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract When a metal is alloyed with another metal, either substitutional or interstitial solid solutions are usually formed. This chapter discusses the general characteristics of these solutions and the effects of several alloying elements on the yield strength of pure metals. It presents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Carbon is an interstitial element, while the larger elements are substitutional. Carbon occupies specific interstitial sites in the bcc iron crystalline lattice, while the larger substitutional elements replace or substitute for iron atoms. The two types of solid solutions impart different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... and plastic materials and viscous substances. It then describes the stress-strain response of two- and three-dimensional solids, explaining how to determine principle stresses and strains using Mohr’s circle and how to derive equivalent stress and strain using the von Mises relationship. It then goes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... morphology. It then discusses the concept of solid solutions, the difference between substitutional and interstitial solid solubility, the effect of alloying elements, and the development of intermetallic phases. The chapter also covers the construction and use of binary and ternary phase diagrams and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Diffusion is the movement of atoms through the crystalline lattice. This chapter discusses the two main types of diffusion that can occur in solids: interstitial diffusion and substitutional diffusion. It describes Fick's first and second laws of diffusion, with emphasis on several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... process during welding. An additional method is to weld the alloy in the solution-treated condition and then age the finished weldment. This might be acceptable because the temperature for aging is considerably lower than the temperature for solutionizing, so it will tend to create less distortion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... form a substitutional solid solution and that all configurations of A and B atoms are equally probable, the number of distinguishable ways of arranging the atoms on the atom sites is: (Eq 3.27) ω c o n f i g = ( N A + N B ) ! N A ! N B...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic principles of alloying and their practical application in the production of titanium mill products and engineered parts. It begins with a review of the atomic and crystal structure of titanium and the conditions for interstitial and substitutional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of alloys for tool steels. The chapter provides information on the research investigations into the metallurgy of high-speed tool steels at MIT, Union Carbide, and Carbon Laboratories. The major research effort involved in substituting molybdenum for tungsten in high-speed tool steels is discussed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... substitutional and interstitial solid solutions, the solute atoms typically distort the crystalline structure to some extent. This distortion roughens the crystallographic slip planes along which atoms can most easily move and reduces or impedes the motion of dislocations throughout the crystalline structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... is removed, the material does not return to its previously undeformed shape. Depending on the relative sizes of the solute and solvent atoms in both substitutional and interstitial solid solutions, the solute atoms typically distort the crystalline structure to some extent. This distortion roughens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... at low temperatures. The atoms of size and electronic structure close to those of iron that do not combine to form carbides, nitrides, or other compounds merely substitute for iron atoms in fcc austenite or bcc ferrite crystals and are said to be in substitutional solid solution. The smaller atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of a suitable material for an application. Hardness values are very useful during quality-control operations. Solid-solution strenghtening is a mechanism that increases the strength of a metal through the careful addition of specific alloying elements. The insertion of substitutional and/or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... solute redistribution, called segregation. Because the atomic arrangement in the liquid phase is less compact than in the solid phases of iron (BCC or FCC), a significant change of volume (contraction) occurs during solidification. (In the case of cast irons, see Chapter 17, “Cast Irons,” in this...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter develops a corrosion model that accounts for solution potentials and the effects of coupling between cathodic and anodic reactions. It begins by examining potential differences at various points (in the solution) along a path from the anode to the cathode area. It then...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... range of temperatures and compositions bounded by the phase-boundary lines. At high temperatures, the liquid, L , field is a homogeneous liquid solution composed of both copper and nickel. The solid solution, α, that exists at lower temperatures is a substitutional solid solution consisting of both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... steel) other elements (such as silicon, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, and/or nickel) that replace the iron atoms in the bcc solid solution. Interstitial alloying elements also have a much stronger influence on the properties of iron than substitutional alloying elements. Even a small addition of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter is a detailed study of the localized corrosion behavior of steel, copper, and aluminum alloys. It applies the basic principles of electrochemistry, as well as materials science and solid and fluid mechanics, to explain the causes and effects of pitting, crevice corrosion...