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substitutional diffusion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract Diffusion is the movement of atoms through the crystalline lattice. This chapter discusses the two main types of diffusion that can occur in solids: interstitial diffusion and substitutional diffusion. It describes Fick's first and second laws of diffusion, with emphasis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... atoms to diffuse to the dislocations and again form atmospheres that pin dislocation movement. alloying elements yield strength pure metals substitutional solid solutions interstitial solid solutions relative size factor chemical affinity factor relative valency factor lattice type factor...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... Most stainless steels are used in the metastable condition. For example, the common alloy 304 (also called 18–8) is normally used in the fully austenitic condition. It would “rather” be partly ferritic, but the substitutional diffusion of chromium in austenite that is required to form a ferrite phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of σ occurs when such alloys are held between 500 and 800 °C; it is a hard, brittle tetragonal phase with equal parts iron and chromium. Thus, its formation causes chromium depletion of the adjoining ferrite. Formation requires substitutional diffusion of chromium so is slower to form than carbides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... crystalline lattice, while the larger substitutional elements replace or substitute for iron atoms. The two types of solid solutions impart different characteristics. For example, interstitial carbon can easily diffuse through the open bcc lattice, whereas substitutional elements diffuse much more slowly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... and Diffusion Substitutional Solid Solutions Interstitial Solid Solutions Solubility Limits Twinning Faults in the Stacking Sequence of Closest-Packed Planes Interstitial Strengthening Hydrogen Embrittlement Like the solubility of salt in water, solid solutions also have solubility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... as a function of current density or charge transfer in a given area. The chapter explains how to measure and plot electrode potentials and currents and how to interpret the resulting polarization curves. It also discusses the effects of concentration gradients, explaining how they cause diffusion and, in some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... steel is heated to a high temperature, the carbon can readily diffuse, resulting in a reasonably uniform composition from one area to the next. The steel is then more homogeneous and will respond to the heat treatment more uniformly. The properties of normalized steels depend on their chemical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... characteristics. For example, interstitial carbon can easily diffuse through the open bcc lattice, whereas substitutional elements diffuse much more slowly. Therefore, carbon responds quickly during heat treatment, whereas substitutional alloying elements behave more sluggishly. Interstitial alloying elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and nickel atoms. It discusses the difference between interstitial and substitutional solid solutions and the factors that determine the type of solution that two metals are likely to form. It also addresses the development of intermediate phases, the role of free energy, transformation kinetics, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... ) of interstitial elements (hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen) compared with substitutional elements in alpha iron. Adapted from: Ref 5 Fig. 9 Arrhenius plot of diffusivity of various metal systems. bcc = body-centered cubic; hcp = hexagonal close-packed; fcc = face-centered cubic. Adapted from: Ref 7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... by diffusion processes. In the case of a solid solution, the solvent (host) accommodates solute atoms within its lattice structure. Solute atoms may either substitute solvent atoms in the host lattice, or solute atoms may fit in the open spaces (or interstices ) in the host lattice. Hence, there are two...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... austenite-ferrite interfaces and long-range diffusion of carbon atoms rejected from the growing ferrite. Partitioning of substitutional alloying elements, such as manganese and nickel, may occur at interfaces of polygonal ferrite, a phenomenon that may cause significant reductions in growth rates of grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... is interstitially dissolved and has a very high diffusion rate. The other substitutional alloying elements have much lower diffusion rates. This gives rise to transformations that are determined by the movement of the substitutional elements, and carbon is distributed according to equilibrium conditions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of Steels ( Ref 3.33 ) and adapted from unpublished work by L. S. Darken. Fig. 3.17 Diffusivity of substitutional, interstitial, and hydrogen atoms in steel as a function of temperature. Source: Ref 3.33 In steel microstructures there are gradients in the concentrations of atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... an important role in processes such as deformation, annealing, precipitation, diffusion, and sintering. All defects and imperfections can be conveniently classified under four main divisions: point defects, line defects, planar defects, and volume defects. This chapter provides a detailed discussion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... by atom diffusion. Two distinct phases observed in alloys are solid solutions and intermetallic compounds. Intermetallic compounds are usually hard and strong with a more or less definite composition. Solid solutions can be of the interstitial type or the substitutional type. To be of the interstitial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in the dual-phase steels described in Chapter 12, “Low-Carbon Steels,” in this book. Unpinned dislocations are present when aging time is insufficient to allow interstitial atom diffusion to dislocations or when the interstitial carbon and nitrogen contents are reduced to very low levels, 30 to 50 ppm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...′ lattice mismatch, γ′ volume fraction, diffusion rates, antiphase-boundary energy, and stacking fault energy. Surface stability improvement is achieved through the formation of a protective surface oxide scale composed largely of chromium and/or aluminum oxides. Reactive elements yttrium, cerium, hafnium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of the Austenite/Ferrite Diffusional Transformation in Low-Alloyed Steels , Acta Metall. , 1982 , Vol 30 , 1982 , p 841 – 51 10.1016/0001-6160(82)90082-7 11. Andersson J.O. and Agren J. , Models for the Numerical Treatment of Multicomponent Diffusion in Simple Phases , J. Appl. Phys...