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subcritical temperature

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the spheroidization of normalized and annealed steels by heating at subcritical temperatures. It explains how lamellar pearlite and proeutectoid cementite transform when heated and how deformation prior to heating affects both the mechanism and kinetics of spheroidization. It also explains how austenitizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the effects that can be observed by light microscopy when a steel in the hardened condition, consisting of martensite and possibly some retained austenite, is heated at subcritical temperatures. It includes micrographs that illustrate the effect of carbide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...). It is classified as being low if it is below about 650 °C. The coiling temperature can be expected to have a marked effect on the size of the cementite particles produced in the subcritical temperature range because cooling is quite slow once the strip has been coiled. Thus the nature of these cementite particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., depending on the time and temperature above or below the critical temperatures ( Fig. 1 ) and the cooling rate. As indicated in Fig. 1 , the annealing of steel includes a variety of heat treatments above, below, and in the range of the Ac 1 critical temperature. Subcritical, or process, annealing refers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
..., as the center is placed into tension and its contraction places the surface in compression, point D, on cooling to room temperature. Fig. 20.1 Schematic diagrams showing the evolution of longitudinal residual stresses in steel cooled from subcritical temperatures where no austenite transformations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Carbon and low-alloy steels in high-temperature service are vulnerable to the effects of hydrogen attack, which include severe loss in tensile and rupture strengths as well as ductility. As the chapter explains, when steel is in contact with hydrogen molecules at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. The transformations commence at lower and lower subcritical temperatures as the cooling rate increases, and it is not appropriate under these conditions to use the phase diagram to interpret the structures formed. The progress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... , Transformation of Austenite at Constant Subcritical Temperatures , Trans. Am. Instit. Min. Met. Eng. , Vol 90 , 1930 , p 117 – 54 5. Grossman M. , Asimow M. , and Urban S.F. , Hardenability, its Relation to Quenching and Some Qualitative Data in Hardenability of Alloy Steel , 1938...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of the water increases, the boiling (saturation) temperature also increases. The saturation temperature becomes constant once the water is boiling at a given pressure. Accordingly, the saturation temperature increases as the pressure increases. Thus, for subcritical units, the saturation temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Boilers are often classified based on the maximum operating temperature and pressure for which they are designed. Classifications, in ascending order, are subcritical, supercritical, ultra-supercritical, and to advanced ultra-supercritical. At each higher operating point comes greater...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... of Subcritical Crack Growth Parameters from Constant Stressing Rate Flexural Strength Tests International Organization for Standardization (ISO) DIS15732 Fine Ceramics (Advanced Ceramics, Advanced Technical Ceramics)—Test Method for Fracture Toughness of Monolithic Ceramics at Room Temperature by Single...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... gradually mounting. For instance, during 1950–1960, the operating steam pressure was 16.7 MPa (2.4 ksi), with superheater and reheater temperatures around 537 °C (1000 °F) each (represented as 16.7 MPa/537 °C/537 °C). That was the era of subcritical boiler technology. From the early 1960s until the middle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter covers the fatigue and fracture behaviors of ceramics and polymers. It discusses the benefits of transformation toughening, the use of ceramic-matrix composites, fracture mechanisms, and the relationship between fatigue and subcritical crack growth. In regard to polymers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... elements. They are also classified as subcritical, supercritical (SC), and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The basic difference between the three types is the operating temperatures and pressures. Subcritical boilers operate below the critical point of water (374.15 °C and 22.1 Mpa, or 705.45 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... properties 8.3.2 Design properties (including MMPDS/MIL-HDBK-5) 8.3.3 Effects of subzero and elevated temperatures 8.3.4 Impact of emerging technologies and premium practices on properties 8.4 Fatigue resistance 8.5 Fracture resistance 8.6 Subcritical crack growth 8.7 Corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 12.16 presents the evolution of the microstructure of an extra low carbon steel that following 90% reduction by cold rolling after hot rolling was annealed at different temperatures. Among the changes occurring during the subcritical annealings performed after cold rolling, only recrystallization can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... Nevertheless, the true spacing can be determined by statistical methods, and it is then found that the true spacing also varies over equally wide ranges ( Ref 6 , 7 ). Chapter 9 shows that the lamellar spacing is determined by a number of factors, prominent among them being the subcritical temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in reference to carbon steels, full annealing is the implied heat treatment practice ( Ref 13.2 ). Full annealing involves austenite formation, in contrast to recrystallization annealing treatments applied to cold-rolled steels at subcritical temperatures, as shown in Fig. 13.1 , and described in Chapter 12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the hardness after hardening and tempering (T) at various temperatures. A, austenite; B, bainite; F, ferrite; M, martensite. Source: Ref 9.10 Annealing cycles are varied according to the temperature and the method of cooling used. Annealing temperatures may be classified as: Subcritical...