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subcritical annealing

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of recovery, recrystallization, and grain growth. This is followed by discussions on annealing processes, namely subcritical annealing, critical-range annealing, full annealing, isothermal annealing, annealing for microstructure, and solution or quench annealing. Next, the chapter describes two undesirable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in reference to carbon steels, full annealing is the implied heat treatment practice ( Ref 13.2 ). Full annealing involves austenite formation, in contrast to recrystallization annealing treatments applied to cold-rolled steels at subcritical temperatures, as shown in Fig. 13.1 , and described in Chapter 12...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... their microstructure for various applications through controlled deformation. It also provides information on subcritical annealing, the examination and control of texture, the use of optical microscopy to monitor the effects of recrystallization, and the effect of cold working on threaded fasteners, nails...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure and properties of annealed and normalized steels containing more than 0.25% carbon. It shows, using detailed micrographs, how incrementally higher levels of carbon affect the structure and distribution of pearlite and how it intermingles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... the spheroidization of normalized and annealed steels by heating at subcritical temperatures. It explains how lamellar pearlite and proeutectoid cementite transform when heated and how deformation prior to heating affects both the mechanism and kinetics of spheroidization. It also explains how austenitizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... below A 1 ( subcritical annealing ), and this may be done in practice in one of two ways. In the first, called box annealing , a stack of sheets or a coil is heated in an enclosed furnace. Heating and cooling rates then are slow, and the material necessarily is held at temperature for a comparatively...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... subcritically, or the formation of austenite at higher temperatures would make martensite formation on cooling virtually unavoidable. Thus, a typical primary anneal cycle for a typical alloy such as 430 would be nearly 24 h at 750 °C (1380 °F), the majority of which is thermal equilibration of the large coil...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the hardness after hardening and tempering (T) at various temperatures. A, austenite; B, bainite; F, ferrite; M, martensite. Source: Ref 9.10 Annealing cycles are varied according to the temperature and the method of cooling used. Annealing temperatures may be classified as: Subcritical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... Source: Ref 8 Annealing practice for the grades of martensitic alloys is given in Table 9 . Full and subcritical annealing processes are shown. The subcritical approach is used whenever possible because the cooling rate from the subcritical range is not critical. Cooling from the full annealing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... 483 71 8620, subcritical annealed 120 827 0.173 55 379 74 510 82 The formulas that gave the best predictions for punch loads in forward extrusion are given in Table 17.4 . The experimental results were obtained by extruding various steel billets 1 in. (2.5 cm) in diameter and 1.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and precipitation-hardening. In addition, information on special considerations for stainless steel castings is also provided. The heat treatment processes explained in the chapter are preheating, annealing, stress relieving, hardening, tempering, austenite conditioning, heat aging, and nitride surface hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Ferritic 430 430, 309L 20–40 Ar+2% O 2 , He+7.5%Ar+2.5 CO 2 no … Subcritical anneal 434 309 Mo L 20–40 Ar+2% O 2, He+7.5%Ar+2.5 CO 2 no … Subcritical anneal 409 410L, 308, 309L 6.0 Ar+2% O 2, He+7.5%Ar+2.5 CO 2 no n.a. none 439 439L, 309L, 316L 6.0 Ar+2% O 2, He+7.5...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
..., or spheroidal. The main property of these carbide-containing surfaces is their ability to resist wear. Kern used the term “super carburizing” to describe processes wherein parts were carburized at 930 °C in a highly carburizing atmosphere, cooled to just below the Ac 1 temperature (subcritical anneal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
.... The older, unstabilized grades are not always fully ferritic. Their carbon levels cause them to form some high-temperature austenite, which transforms to martensite if quenched. This makes their welds brittle. To be used, they are normally in the annealed condition, which requires a lengthy subcritical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... then is not too different from that obtained by annealing at subcritical temperatures after cold rolling ( Fig. 4.7 ), or by heating a pearlitic parent structure for long periods at subcritical temperatures ( Fig. 7.1 ). However, the ferritic grain size tends to be smaller for the case under consideration than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... becomes so difficult that the material must be annealed to restore its ductility. Such annealing between processing steps is referred to as in-process or simply process annealing. It may consist of any appropriate treatment; however, in most instances, a subcritical treatment is adequate and the least...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... formable recrystallized ferritic structures is accomplished by subcritical annealing, i.e., annealing below A C1 temperatures without austenite formation. Newer types of sheet steels, such as the dual-phase and TRIP steels described in following sections, are subjected to intercritical annealing, i.e...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... thermal treatment. They are heat treated primarily for full annealing or for stress relieving, and in some highly specialized applications, they can be nitrided to enhance surface hardness. Austenitic stainless steels are also generally the most creep resistant of the stainless steel alloys ( Fig. 12.4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... physical properties; typical and minimum (design) mechanical properties; fatigue strength; fracture resistance, including subcritical crack growth; and resistance to general corrosion and to stress-corrosion cracking. The chapter concludes with information on the properties of cast aluminum matrix...