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stress-to-craze value

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... initiation, the kinetics of craze growth, and the effect of crazing on toughness of the plastic. In addition, the article provides information on various tests to determine stress-to-craze value, strain-to-craze value, and fracture toughness of the plastic. ductile-brittle transitions crazing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article discusses the molecular mechanism, environmental criteria, and material optimization of environmental stress crazing (ESC) in glassy thermoplastics, polyethylenes, and nylons. In addition, it provides information on various tests used to determine relative susceptibility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... stress-to-craze value is specified in ASTM Standard F 484. Fig. 7.7 Schematic of craze formation. (a) Outline of a craze tip and the upper and lower surfaces (side view). (b) Cross section in the craze plane (top view) across craze matter tufts (fibrils). (c) and (d) Advance of the craze front by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the nature of the polymer, these microvoids continue to grow into localized areas of stress whitening, stress crazing, stress cracking, or brittle failure. Therefore, design limitation and product failure for some plastics may be associated with stress crazing, stress cracking, or stress whitening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... strengths may be 5 to 10 times higher than the tensile strengths. Under an applied tensile load at room temperature, ceramics almost always fracture before any plastic deformation can occur. Stress concentrations leading to brittle failure can be minute surface or interior cracks (microcracks), or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Polycarbonate fails in a sodium hydroxide-ethanol mixture as a result of main-chain scission through hydrolysis under low stresses ( Ref 3 ). It has been proposed that the fibrils in a very short craze, which forms at the crack tip, are exposed to the chemically aggressive environment. The hydrolytic cleavage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... concentration. The crazes form as thin sheets that are approximately 0.1 to 10 μm (4 to 400 μm.) thick and spread as a planar zone. Within the craze, the density is on the order of 50% of the original density. The creep, stress relaxation, and yield behavior for crazes is quite different than it is for shear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... polymer ( Fig. 10 ), a Dugdale ( Ref 13 ), or strip yield, approximation is used to estimate the size of this plastic zone, r d : (Eq 12) r d = π 8 ( K I σ y ) 2 where σ y is the craze stress. For an elastic, perfectly plastic material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... level (stress or strain amplitude). From a thermodynamic point of view ( Ref 12 ), part of the mechanical work done during cyclic loading is spent on irreversible molecular processes ( Ref 13 ), leading to microscopic deformations such as crazes, shear bands, voids, and microcracks. The other part of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... crazing ( Ref 3 ). Both reflect large amounts of plastic deformation at the crack tip. In the case of some polymers, for example, polycarbonate, a large yield zone is observed. In others, the phenomenon is referred to as crazing, where the apparent crack is really a zone of fibrous material produced by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... fluctuating mechanical stresses having a maximum value of stress lower than the ultimate tensile strength of the material. Damage due to mechanical fatigue is mainly associated with externally applied stresses. High-frequency low-amplitude stresses are developed on account of vibrations due to irregular flow...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... storage environments. Crazing is a failure mode in which microcracks and sometimes color shifts develop in a plastic material. Stress, a hostile environment (exposure to chemicals that degrade the material), or a combination of stress and a hostile environment can induce crazing. Aging can also induce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... initial stress, σ 0 , yields a straight line, intersecting the σ 0 axis at a value equivalent to the internal stress. This method is time-consuming and yields only an average stress rather than a stress profile ( Ref 2 , 19 ). The layer removal technique is useful in measuring residual-stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... –6 in./in. · °F from 70 to 800 °F for carbon steel and Type 304, respectively). The residual stresses formed in the cladding in both the as-fabricated condition and after service were studied under the DOE program. Also investigated in the program was finite element modeling of stresses in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... frequently exhibit craze cracking as a result of the interaction of applied stress and environmental reactions ( Ref 2 – 5 ). Until recently, it was thought that pure metals were immune to SCC; however, it has been shown that pure metals are susceptible to SCC ( Ref 6 , 7 ). This discussion focuses on the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... cheaper than for metal cases, plus the lead times required to procure these tools are much shorter. Alterations to the mandrel and other fabrication tools are far easier to implement; thus, design changes are easily implemented. Composites are basically unaffected by stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... considered to occur when the average value of the tensile stress over some characteristic length a 0 from the hole reaches the unnotched ultimate tensile strength of the laminate. Under the point stress criterion, failure is considered to occur when the local value of the stress at some characteristic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... concentration, K crit , is reached, mechanical fracture results. Although stress concentration does occur at such flaws, it does not exceed the critical value required to cause mechanical fracture of the material in an inert environment ( K scc < K crit ). Precorrosion followed by loading in an inert...