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stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking

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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 33 Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking in refinery plate steel. Note the stacked array of hydrogen blister cracks going through the thickness of the material (vertical) oriented perpendicular to the direction of the applied tensile stress (horizontal). More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... stress cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking, stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking, hydrogen embrittlement cracking, stress-corrosion cracking, velocity-accelerated corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion control is provided. petroleum refineries petrochemical plants materials selection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... For stress-corrosion cracking, the stress is often externally applied. For hydrogen damage, liquid metal induced embrittlement, and solid metal induced embrittlement, the stress is induced by reactions with the environment. In the time between the publication of the first edition of this book...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of hydrogen stress cracking and HIC and has been designated stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking (SOHIC) ( Ref 19 ). It is unfortunate that too often when investigators observe a new morphology of cracking, they establish a new name for the cracking regardless whether this is justified mechanistically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... of high-strength steels to SCC ( Ref 18.15 , 18.50 , 18.51 ). It has been reported that SCC resistance decreases with rising strength level ( Ref 18.50 , 18.52 ). Stress-corrosion cracking can take the form of hydrogen-assisted or -induced cracking in specific material/environments ( Ref 18.53...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...: 100×. Source: Ref 2.21 In lower-strength pressure vessel and pipeline steels in aqueous hydrogen sulfide, HIC arrays may begin to link together to form through-wall cracks ( Ref 2.7 , 2.24 ). Such cracking is often referred to as “step-wise cracking” or “stress-oriented hydrogen-induced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... The fracture is either intergranular or transgranular cleavage. As with other forms of cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking involves both a requisite microstructure and a threshold level of stress. It also involves a critical level of hydrogen, which is alloy and microstructure dependent. In the case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Oxide (?) Anhydrated ammonia Nitride CO/CO 2 /H 2 O Carbide CS 2 /H 2 O Carbide Titanium alloys Chloride Hydride Aluminum alloys, steels Various media Near-surface hydrogen The Phenomenon of SCC Stress-corrosion cracking is a delayed failure process. That is, cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... at the crack tip ( Ref 9.19 ). A number of specific hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms have been proposed for magnesium. A weak, stress-induced magnesium hydride may form ( Ref 9.58 , 9.65 ), a theory supported by observations of an approximately 1 μm thick brittle MgH 2 film on a magnesium SCC fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... hydrogen 1.1 The Phenomenon of Stress-Corrosion Cracking Stress-corrosion cracking is a delayed failure process. That is, cracks initiate and propagate at a slow rate (e.g., 10 −9 to 10 −6 m/s) until the stresses in the remaining ligament of metal exceed the fracture strength. The sequence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., and environment determine whether or not stress-corrosion cracking develops in a susceptible alloy. It also provides stress-corrosion ratings for many alloys, tempers, and product forms and includes information on hydrogen-induced cracking. aluminum alloys crack susceptibility hydrogen-induced cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... (hydrogen embrittlement cracking, also known more familiarly as sulfide stress cracking, or SSC, when involving environments that include exposure to H 2 S). A monograph of classic papers published on cracking of steels in petroleum upstream and downstream wet H 2 S environments was published by NACE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
.... Other supporting evidence for hydrogen embrittlement includes the similarity in fracture appearance of stress-corrosion cracks and cracks induced by gaseous hydrogen ( Ref 3.4 , 3.8 ). However, gaseous hydrogen evolved at the metal surface in aqueous environments does not constitute atomic hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... for the SCC of zirconium alloys: anodic dissolution ( Ref 11.16 ), hydrogen embrittlement ( Ref 11.3 , 11.48 ), and stress sorption ( Ref 11.12 ). Controversy also exists as to whether different mechanisms are needed to account for intergranular and transgranular cracking. Cox ( Ref 11.49 ) indicates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-temperature hydrogen attack and its effect on strength and ductility. cracking hydrogen embrittlement liquid-metal-induced embrittlement quench embrittlement temper embrittlement tempered-martensite embrittlement toughness TOUGHNESS IS THE TERM used to describe the ability of a steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... cracking involves both a requisite microstructure and a threshold level of stress. It also involves a critical level of hydrogen, which depends on the alloy and microstructure. In the case of ideal weld processing, hydrogen-induced cracking would be at most a minor welding engineering concern. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... properties required for the application may rely on the strength, toughness, or stress-corrosion cracking resistance in a direction other than longitudinal. Design-caused failures include inappropriate geometries defined on the engineering drawing, which may lead to a compromise of component or system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...-temperature hydrogen attack, hy- the stress (or load) required to induce fracture drogen blistering, hydrogen embrittlement, instability in a structure containing a cracklike liquid metal embrittlement, solid metal em- aw of known size and shape. As opposed to brittlement, stress corrosion cracking...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... additional benefits, such as greatly decreased susceptibility to hydrogen-assisted cold cracking and reduced residual stresses and distortion. Welding Flaws Porosity Porosity, or fine holes or pores within the weld metal, can occur by absorption of evolved gases and chemical reaction. Metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in the weld zone. The likelihood of cracking due to quench-induced residual stresses can be reduced by minimizing hydrogen content (by vacuum-solution heat treatment prior to quenching), by mechanical stress relieving (for parts of simple geometry), or by thermal reduction of residual stresses (by age...