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stress equalizing

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... in its mathematical expression. Other supplemental factors are added, depending on the situation. Thus, K SSF is often used in fatigue analysis to replace the geometrical stress concentration factor K t . This approach is equally applicable to both stress-based and strain-based analysis methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This appendix presents a close-form solution to determine the stress distribution around a hole of any shape or size in a strip of any material of any width. It also compares the close-form equation to classical solutions and the results of finite element analysis, demonstrating near...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., shear, and compression—to have equal magnitudes that are maximum at the surface and zero at the center. However, a stress concentration, such as a transverse hole, greatly increases the stress magnitude at the edges of the hole, particularly in the tension and compression planes, as shown in Fig. 2(b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
..., and there are a total of six shear stress components: τ xy , τ yx , τ xz , τ zx , τ yz , and τ zy . However, since there is a static equilibrium of moments, pairs of shear stresses with the same subscripts are always equal (i.e., τ xy = yx ). Hence, there are three orthogonal shear stresses: (Eq...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., and the stress dependence of n must be determined by experiments. The magnitude of the stress relative to the yield point is an important factor made evident by Eq 2 . For small strains of less than approximately 1%, n is generally equal to 1. This region is called linear viscoelastic behavior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... ¯ Equation 5.4 shows that, according to Tresca’s rule, plastic flow or yielding starts if the difference of maximum (σ 1 ) and minimum (σ 3 ) principal stresses is equal to the flow stress, σ ¯ . Figure 5.6 shows that the position of the Mohr circle, i.e., the hydrostatic stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract Boiler tubes operating at high temperatures under significant pressure are vulnerable to stress rupture failures. This chapter examines the cause, effect, and appearance of such failures. It discusses the conditions and mechanisms that either lead to or are associated with stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Aluminum is protected by a barrier oxide film that, if damaged, reforms immediately in most environments. Despite this inherent corrosion resistance, there are conditions where aluminum alloys, like many materials, are subject to the effects of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... = ( σ x x + σ y y + σ z z ) 3 = ( σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) 3 = 1 3 I 1 The stress quantity σ m is like three equal components of normal stress acting in all the three directions. This is equivalent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... is the stress needed to close the crack, B is a constant, − V m is the electrochemical potential of the sample, and V 0 is the reversible potential. However, the assumption that the pit corrosion conditions are equal to the flat surface conditions limits the applicability of this model, because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of metals and their alloys. It is intended to familiarize the reader with the phenomenological and mechanistic aspects of stress corrosion. The phenomenological description of crack initiation and propagation describes well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... lower than in BWRs, PWR cracking incidents have also been attributed to low-ductility stress rupture, although this cracking mechanism must be considered equally applicable to BWRs. In support of a mechanical cracking interpretation, there have been laboratory reports of intergranular cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in magnesium alloys was first reported in the 1930s and, within ten years, became the focus of intense study. This chapter provides a summary of all known work published since then on the nature of SCC in magnesium alloys and how it is related...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in the stainless steel; application of the solution to the unnotched beam resulted in the immediate initiation of many cracks in the smooth surface. Hydrochloric acid was found to be equally effective. Stress-corrosion tests can be divided into two broad environmental classes: those conducted in actual service...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter explains how to determine flow stress and forgeability using data from tensile tests, compression tests, ring tests, and torsion tests. It describes sample preparation, tooling and equipment, test procedures, error sources, and data plotting techniques. It also provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses two damage mechanisms in which stress plays a major role. In the one case, stress causes cracks in the oxide scale on metals, leading to preferential corrosion attack. An example from industry of this type of failure is the circumferential cracking that occurs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... ) and is generally attributable to hydride precipitation within the a phase under stress. Fracture characteristics resemble those obtained in aqueous SCC failures, with cracking velocities less than or equal to 10 −3 cm/s (4 × 10 −4 in./s) ( Ref 10.89 ). At higher temperatures and pressures, absorption...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Nickel and nickel-base alloys are specified for many applications, such as oil and gas production, power generation, and chemical processing, because of their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Under certain conditions, however, SCC can be a concern. This chapter describes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... systems of forces, each tensile residual stress (creating a tensile force) must be balanced by an equal and opposite compressive residual stress (creating a compressive force). This is a corollary to Newton’s third law of motion: every force must have an equal and opposite reactive or balancing force...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of parts are shown. In conventional quenching, the differences in cooling rates follow through the transformation of austenite to martensite, leading to the development of surface tensile stresses as described previously. In the martempering treatments, temperatures are allowed to equalize in order...