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strain-to-craze value

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... initiation, the kinetics of craze growth, and the effect of crazing on toughness of the plastic. In addition, the article provides information on various tests to determine stress-to-craze value, strain-to-craze value, and fracture toughness of the plastic. ductile-brittle transitions crazing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... there is no reason to expect that it would not apply to other glassy thermoplastics. As shown in Fig. 8 , plastics with both polar and nonpolar solubility parameters near those of the solvent (that is, with data points near the origin of the plot) tend to have low values of critical strain to craze. Solubility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... the fibrils increase in length, the fibrils fail at a critical strain and a true crack is thus formed. Figure 7.9 schematically illustrates this process. Fig. 7.8 Schematic showing oriented/lengthened fibrils in between the upper and lower surfaces of a craze Fig. 7.9 Schematic crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... flow and crazing ( Ref 1 ). Shear flow is a bulk phenomenon, and the plastic deformation is often homogeneous, except for the shear banding that occurs at high strains. Also, the density change during shear flow is small. Crazing is a localized form of deformation that initiates at points of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
...), or internal pores, which are virtually impossible to eliminate or control. Plane-strain fracture toughness ( K Ic ) values for ceramic materials are much lower than for metals, typically below 10  MPa m   ( 9  ksi in. ) , while for metals they can exceed 110  MPa m...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... parameters approaches 0. Fig. 4 Critical strain for the crazing or cracking of polyphenylene oxide as a function of solubility parameter. Crosshatched area shows range of critical strain values in air. Source: Ref 32 In strong polar or hydrogen-bonding liquids, the relationship between...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...; T g , glass transition temperature Fig. 6 Isochronous plot of polycarbonate stress-strain behavior as a function of temperature. Note that the crazing locus decreases in strain value with increasing temperature. (a) 23 °C (73.5 °F). Relative humidity, 50%. (b) 40 °C (104 °F). (c) 80 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... to be susceptible to chemically induced crazing ( Ref 5 ). In such instances, the crack inception values can be substantially reduced in the presence of aggressive media ( Ref 5 ). For example, PC is known...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... on the concept of the J -integral to determine plane-strain fracture toughness values. To date, the most commonly used method is that of ASTM E 813 ( Ref 26 ). This method was discontinued in 1989 and replaced by ASTM E 1737 ( Ref 27 ). The differences between the two are minor, but the methods for data...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... the role of crazing in FCI in glassy and semicrystalline polymers. For example, in a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick extruded, unnotched PC specimen exposed to high strain fatigue, the formation of microcrazes terminated by shear bands precedes crack initiation ( Ref 16 ). The crazing density appears to reach...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... surface. With further increases in section thickness or crack size, the flat region spreads to the outside of the specimen, decreasing the widths of the shear lips. When the minimum value of plane-strain toughness ( K IC ) is reached, the shear lips have very small width. Source: Ref 2 Causes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... with a strain energy release rate. The strain energy release rates for both stable and unstable crack propagation are higher (by a factor of as much as 1.2) perpendicular to the flow direction. This is attributed to anisotropic craze resistance. This resistance is higher in the flow, or orientation, direction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... fractures. Cracking of the tube ends is a characteristic feature of thermal fatigue. Thermal fatigue damage typically exhibits numerous cracks and crazing. Damage due to thermal fatigue can be of the low-cycle or high-cycle type ( Ref 6.1 ). Drastic change in temperature causing thermal shock or a large...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
...-dimensional, axisymmetric finite-element codes, including ABAQUS, NASTRAN, ANSYS, ARGUS, SAASMC, and TEXLSP, can perform accurate evaluations using orthotropic elastic/plastic material properties and large displacement/strain Lagrangian formulation with special “gap” elements for interfaces, automatic mesh...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Macroscopic yielding and fracture may not always be appropriate criteria for long-time duration material failure. For some plastics, stress crazing, stress cracking, or stress whitening may signal product failure and may therefore become a design limitation. Creep strain is usually plotted against time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., such as delaminations and matrix crazing around the hole. Localized compression loading caused by the fastener leads to buckling and kinking of the fibers followed by crushing of the matrix. Shear-out : Shear-out failures result from insufficient edge distance or from having too many plies oriented in the load...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... , 23 ). Assuming thermal cycling to 450 °C (840 °F) is considered, the cyclic strains would be about 0.25% and the fatigue life for the stainless steel cladding is expected to be in excess of 100,000 cycles ( Ref 23 ). There is some thermal expansion mismatch between the 304L cladding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... exhibit craze cracking as a result of the interaction of applied stress and environmental reactions ( Ref 2 – 5 ). Until recently, it was thought that pure metals were immune to SCC; however, it has been shown that pure metals are susceptible to SCC ( Ref 6 , 7 ). This discussion focuses on the SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... or localized corrosion penetration cannot achieve the proper pH, potential, or chemistry, crack propagation may not proceed. Also, if the pit aspect ratio is not greater than a critical value, then the local stresses and strains resulting from a sustained sharp crack are not attained and crack growth cannot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... are characterized by localized damage, such as delaminations and matrix crazing around the hole. Bearing failures occur by the fastener causing localized comparession loading leading to bucking and kinking of the fibers followed by crushing of the matrix. Shear-out: Insufficient edge distance, or too many...