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straightening

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Image
Published: 01 August 2012
Fig. 2.13 Roll straightening. Source: Ref 2.4 More
Image
Published: 01 June 1985
Fig. 5-30. Residual stresses in a shaft due to plastic bending during a straightening operation. (a) Stress distribution during plastic bending. (b) Residual stress measured after load removal. 9 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1998
Fig. 3-13 Combination drawing line for automatic drawing, straightening, eddy-current inspection, and cutting to length. Courtesy of Allvac More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... This designation applies to products that are not cold worked after an elevated-temperature shaping process such as casting or extrusion and for which mechanical properties have been stabilized by room-temperature aging. It also applies to products that are flattened or straightened after cooling from the shaping...
Image
Published: 01 August 2012
Fig. 8.24 An example of a drawn rectangular cup: corners are similar to deep drawing, and the sides undergo bending and straightening More
Image
Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 19.1 Types of cracks that may develop in the continuous casting of steel. Internal cracks: 1-midway, 2-triple point, 3-centerline, 4-diagonal, 5-straightening/bending, 6-pinch roll. Surface cracks: 7-longitudinal mid-face, 8-longitudinal corner, 9-transverse mid-face, 10-transverse corner More
Image
Published: 01 June 1985
pressure from a straightening press. The crushing effect of the case into the core formed a weakened case/core interface which became the origin for sheer fatigue. More
Image
Published: 01 June 1988
Fig. 10.19 Schematic illustration of facility utilizing high-frequency welding for fabrication of structural members. A-uncoilers and flatteners. B-cut flange feeder. C-web upsetter. D-flange prebender. E-welder, one each side. F-cooling zone. G-straighteners, longitudinal and flange. H More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... up to the elastic limit of the ferrous product. These systems cannot be used to inspect hot rolled or annealed bars unless they have been subjected to some uniform cold work, such as rotary straightening for round material or planar type straightening for square, hexagonal, or flat sections. Gage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... forming processes Bending and straight flanging processes ( Section 2.4 ) Brake bending Hemming Roll Forming Roll Bending Tube Bending Flanging Hole Flanging Joggling Blank Preparation ( Section 2.5 ) Sheet leveling and straightening Shearing, blanking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... lower control arms are safety-critical, but the cross members are not. Therefore, while straightening and salvage-welding are not allowed on the control arms, straightening and some salvage welding are allowed on cross members for engines, transmissions, and rear frames. Cored lower control arms...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... or ductility. Stress-relief treatments decrease the undesirable residual stresses that result from: Nonuniform hot forging deformation Nonuniform cold forming and straightening Asymmetric machining of plate (hogouts) or forgings Welding of wrought, cast, or powder metallurgy (P/M) articles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., or when lower temperatures are intentionally used during finish-forging operations. Finishing Billets and Bars Forged billets and bars are usually annealed, straightened, and finished to particular specification requirements. Finishing is necessary to remove surface defects and oxygen contamination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Operation at elevated temperatures Electrical discharge machining Mechanical action Machining, grinding, and polishing Mechanical surface treatments Shot peening Surface rolling Hammer peening Ballizing Cold forming Stretching Drawing Upsetting Bending and straightening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... times and temperatures should be based on the desired mechanical properties and time cycles based on furnace loading and heat input rates, which vary widely. Most casting manufacturers today base their holding time cycles on thermocouple surveys of the castings in a loaded furnace. Straightening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Type of defect, mode Effect of defect Root cause of defect Procedures to prevent defect 1 Dimensional variation, cross section Scrap Tool defect press conditions Sampling, periodic testing 2 Straightness deviation, bend Increased straightening cost, scrap Section guiding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the same-size material is drawn across two different draw benches using different pulling mechanisms and two different straightening mechanisms. Whether the material is continuously annealed or batch annealed can cause different strain distributions across the material cross section as well as material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... process can offer many distinct advantages: If one considers the cost of scrap due to distortion and time spent straightening, nitriding is not an expensive process compared to carburizing. However, in terms of high-volume production requirements (e.g., automotive gears), nitriding does not always...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... as they are in the annealed condition. Thus, straightening and forming operations are often conducted in the as-quenched temper. Because precipitation hardening will occur at room temperature, forming or straightening is usually conducted as soon as possible after quenching. Forming and straightening operations vary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
...-strength AHSS grades. Results of in-field repairs of AHSS indicate that GMAW is acceptable as a repair method; but flame straightening should be avoided because the heating cycle in flame straightening (650 °C, or 1200 °F, for 90 s) softens the repaired part. Performance Evaluation...