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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., precipitation-hardening reactions seem to have little effect on residual stresses ( Ref 8 ). Mechanical Residual Stresses To understand mechanical residual stresses, let us first examine the principle of the arch. As shown in Fig. 5 , a stone arch is constructed in such a way that the critical joints...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... , Rail Steels—Developments, Processing and Use , STP 644, ASTM , 1978 , p 287 – 302 10.1520/STP27113S 15.4 Rail Steels—Developments, Processing, and Use , Stone D.H. and Knupp G.G. , Ed., STP 644, ASTM , 1978 15.5 Rail Steels—Developments, Manufacturing and Performance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... or against a copper sulfide mineral deposit and copper was produced; or it is even possible that during an act of worship an ancient man intentionally cast bright stones into a fire and subsequently found that the “gods” had turned the stones into copper metal. Very high-purity metals (99.999+% pure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... All iron, except for occasional meteorites, is tied up in compound form. Therefore, its discovery was fortuitous; humans built fires with wood, placed stones within the fire pits to maintain heat, and learned that iron was reduced from these iron-rich stones. This type of iron was not melted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... on a conveyor roller Fig. 14.12 Damage from rubbing contact on an air bearing hemisphere Fig. 14.13 Free-spinning stone model of planet Earth supported by a hydrostatic (water) bearing Fig. 14.8 Breakaway coefficient of friction in an inclined plane test (ASTM International G214...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t6244000x
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... from ores involved cupellation of lead, and the base metal was then recovered from the litharge [ Tylecote 1976 ]. The softness and malleability of lead were clearly recognized, and there exist examples of lead being used as a setting agent to fix posts in the ground and lock morticed stones...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
...: inorganic and fired . Bricks are made from clays, and they do not have to be fired—they can be sun dried, as has been done by many cultures. Therefore, bricks do not really belong in ceramics. Concrete is made from cement and aggregate; it is a composite—stones and sand held by a cement matrix. Cement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... chloride and includes a list of structurally similar compounds. amorphous materials chemical bonding chemical elements crystal structures MATERIALS are so important to civilization that the terms stone age, bronze age , and iron age have been used to describe periods of history. Perhaps...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... to invent mass-produced machine tools. Early man built tools from materials at hand, including sticks, stones, and bones. Later, tools were shaped. They were sharpened to make suitable sticks for spears, and stones were shaped to make points and sharp edges. Eventually, man learned to reduce small...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Besides SiC paper, a number of other options are available to circumvent their use. One option, used chiefly with semiautomatic and automatic systems, is to grind a number of specimens placed in a holder simultaneously using a conventional grinding stone generally made of coarse grit alumina. This step...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... of the mechanical action of a fluid that produces erosion. Windstorms have significantly whittled down the size of ancient stone monuments in the Egyptian deserts—this is solid particle erosion. Sand is the solid particle and the air is the carrier of the sand (the fluid) and the source of the mechanical action...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... standards dealing with erosion control materials like armor stone, the durability of rocks, and the use of all sorts of erosion control devices. This book will address, for example, liquid erosion in plastics and metal piping; solid particle erosion as would occur in fans carrying particle-laden air...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... as stone coal) was an acceptable fuel. Anthracite coal was formed under more heat and pressure than the better-known bituminous coal. Thus, it was harder and lower in volatiles, and it required a higher temperature to ignite and burn. The Wurts brothers felt that if they could get the coal to New York...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htpa.t53310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-346-1
... Democritus and Aristotle described hardness as a defining attribute of the elements. In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, the only way to test the hardness of a material was with rough performance tests of weapons and tools made of steel. Swords were struck on wood or stone to decide if the steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ( No. 6 ), 1986 , p 27 – 37 30. Poetker R.H. and Stone J.D. , Squeezing Inhibitor into Formation , Pet. Eng ., Vol 28 , May 1956 , p B29 – B34 31. Poetker R.H. and Stone J.D. , Inhibition Improved 17 Percent While Cost Dropped 50 Percent , Oil Gas J. , Vol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... with the technology of stainless steel as it pertains to its proper use in architecture, art, and construction. Corrosion is the life-limiting factor for architectural metals. Steel, copper, aluminum, lead, bronze, and other alloys react with the environment and degrade over time, as does wood, stone, plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... , Espoo, Finland , 1998 , p 637 34. Stone P.G. , Orr J. , and Guest J.C. , Status Review of Alloy 800 , Proc. British Nuclear Energy Society Conference , Pugh S.F. , Ed., AERE Harwell , 1975 , p 15 10.1680/asroa800.44449.0002 35. Orr J. , “ A Review...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... designs, for example, stone and aluminum as well as stone and aluminum-glass, are found to an increasing extent, as shown in Fig. 2.58 and 2.59 . Finally, pure stone façades with stove enameled aluminum windows and frames make a good impression as can be seen in Fig. 2.63 . Both concepts...