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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Abstract This chapter covers the different types of extrusion presses in use, discussing their relative advantages, operating parameters, and selection factors. It describes the function of major components, including containers, stems, dummy pads, and die carriers, the maintenance they require...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract Fracture mechanics is the science of predicting the load-carrying capabilities of cracked structures based on a mathematical description of the stress field surrounding the crack. The fundamental ideas stem from the work of Griffith, who demonstrated that the strain energy released...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., provides best practices and recommendations for photographing structures and features of interest, and describes the capabilities of hot-stage and hot-cell microscopes. light microscopy metallurgical microscope photomacrography photomicrography Although numerous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... temperature for the structure. Fig. 9.14 Core potting in the honeycomb core In most applications, the honeycomb thickness must be machined to some contour. This machining is normally accomplished using valve stem–type cutters on expanded core. Occasionally, before expansion, the solid honeycomb...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... dendrite grains relative to their growth direction is determined by its lattice symmetry and physical properties of its surface. Anisotropy of the surface tension and the instabilities at the growing tip of the primary dendrite stem can lead to its side branching according to specific crystallographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... include the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the SEM, and the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). Another electron microscope, used mainly in a research environment, is the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). A description of these four electron microscopes is given subsequently...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... the others stemmed from efforts to produce better results. The reagents are used principally to reveal phosphorus or carbon segregation and dendritic structure. At the time these reagents were first introduced, phosphorus segregation was an important problem in Bessemer steels. Today, however, little...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...-induced segregation. Source: Ref 6.24 , 6.30 Fig. 6.10 Temperature dependence of the chromium profile width and observed minimum values (the actual minimum at the grain boundary is lower) for chromium and nickel. Data were obtained by D-STEM in a 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stainless steel fuel cladding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in CG iron. Full deep etch. 395× The applications of CG irons stem from their intermediate position between gray and spheroidal graphite (SG) irons. Compared to gray irons, CG irons have certain advantages: Higher tensile strength at the same carbon equivalent, which reduces the need for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... tool is used to inject defects from the backside into specific silicon memory locations in different SRAM blocks [28] . This activity helps to validate or determine the bit layout and mapping of the cells in the block. Using FIB defect injection, test and yield teams can interpret design features such...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... dendrite grows into the melt, and as secondary arms spread from the main dendrite stem, solute is rejected, effectively being pushed aside to concentrate in the tiny regions enclosed by the secondary dendrite arms. This gradation of composition from the inside to the outside of the dendrite is called...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... corrosion, which stem from the failure of this passive film. This chapter explores the behavior of stainless steel in media that promote uniform corrosion and the various mechanisms of localized corrosion, such as pitting and crevice corrosion. To most designers, the most recognized characteristic of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... axis. In-lens BSE detectors are commonly used to monitor FIB milling processes [21] . Electron transmission detectors enable scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) which are useful where features are resolvable to >0.6 nm dimensions. A variety of analytical tools such as EDS and EBSD...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., erosion, or wear during service. Crevices can stem from adhering process stream deposits or scales, metal-to-metal joints (for example, poor weld joint design on tube-to-tube sheet joints), and gasket-to-metal flanges and other seal joints. The mechanism for crevice corrosion of titanium is similar to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... limited by the size of the hollow stem. Fig. 16.18 Direct and indirect extrusion Generally, aluminum alloys are extruded without lubrication, but copper alloys, titanium alloys, alloy steels, stainless steels, and tool steels are extruded with a variety of graphite and glass-based lubricants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... dendrite arm (the main stem aligned left-to-right in the micrograph), with a number of secondary arms aligned perpendicular to the primary arm. If the metallographer happened to section the specimen through the secondary arms, the resulting microstructure would reveal a necklace-type morphology, shown in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... applications : dentistry uses, prosthetic devices Space vehicles : aerodynamically heated skins, rocket engine parts Heat-treating equipment : trays, fixtures, conveyor belts, baskets, fans, furnace mufflers Nuclear power systems : control rod drive mechanisms, valve stems, springs, ducting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... (VAR) furnace. (a) 30 ton VAR. (b) Operational components: 1, electrode feed drive; 2, furnace chamber; 3, melting power supply; 4, busbars/cables; 5, electrode ram; 6, water jacket with crucible; 7, vacuum suction port; 8, X - Y adjustment; 9, load cell system. Courtesy of ALD Vacuum Technologies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... lighter ones float toward the top. As the dendrite grows into the melt and as secondary arms spread from the main dendrite stem, solute is rejected, effectively being pushed aside to concentrate in the tiny regions enclosed by the secondary dendrite arms. This gradation of composition from the inside...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... the design and predict service life of pressure vessels and other engineering structures in which subcritical flaw growth or time-dependent fractures, such as those stemming from stress-corrosion cracking or fatigue, are important. An adequate fracture mechanics analysis of a structure subjected to...