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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the properties and compositions of steels used in pressure vessels, piping, boilers, rebar, and other structural applications. It covers fine-grained steels, quenched and tempered steels, and controlled rolled (thermomechanical treatment) steels. It also compares...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract Tool steels are a special class of alloys designed for tool and die applications. High-speed steels are a subset of tool steels designed to operate at high speeds. This chapter describes the composition, properties, heat treatment, and use of wrought and alloyed tool steels, high-speed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract High-strength steels are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) even in moist air. This chapter identifies such steels and the applications where they are typically found. It provides information on crack growth kinetics and crack propagation models in which hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter takes a practical approach to the problem of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steels, explaining how different application environments affect different grades of stainless steel. It describes the causes of stress-corrosion cracking in chloride, caustic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter discusses various alloying and processing approaches to increase the strength of low-carbon steels. It describes hot-rolled low-carbon steels, cold-rolled and annealed low-carbon steels, interstitial-free or ultra-low carbon steels, high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels, dual-phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Medium-carbon steels are typically hardened for high-strength, high-fatigue-resistant applications by austenitizing, quenching to martensite, and tempering. This chapter explains how microalloying with vanadium, niobium, and/or titanium provides an alternate way to improve the mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Abstract This chapter describes the mechanical properties of fully pearlitic microstructures and their suitability for wire and rail applications. It begins by describing the ever-increasing demands placed on rail steels and the manufacturing methods that have been developed in response. It...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Abstract Steels with martensitic and tempered martensitic microstructures, though sometimes perceived as brittle, exhibit plasticity and ductile fracture behavior under certain conditions. This chapter describes the alloying and tempering conditions that produce a ductile form of martensite in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the causes of cracking, embrittlement, and low toughness in carbon and low-alloy steels and their differentiating fracture surface characteristics. It discusses the interrelated effects of composition, processing, and microstructure and contributing factors such as hot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Stainless steels derive their name from their exceptional corrosion resistance, which is attributed to their finely tuned compositions. This chapter discusses the alloying elements used in stainless steels and the some of the processing challenges they present. One of the biggest challenges is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Tools steels are defined by their wear resistance, hardness, and durability which, in large part, is achieve by the presence of carbide-forming alloys such as chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium. This chapter describes the alloying principles employed in various tool steels, including...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces the metallographer to the various types of steels and cast irons and explains how they are classified and defined. Classification and designation details are provided for plain carbon steels, alloy steels, and gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses various processes involved in the production of steel from raw materials to finished mill products. The processes include hot rolling, cold rolling, forging, extruding, or drawing. The chapter provides a detailed description of two main furnaces used for making...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Alloy steels are alloys of iron with the addition of carbon and one or more of the following elements: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, niobium, titanium, tungsten, cobalt, copper, vanadium, silicon, aluminum, and boron. Alloy steels exhibit superior mechanical properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the classification, composition, properties, and applications of five types of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening steels. It discusses the process involved in argon oxygen decarburization that is used to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Abstract This chapter describes the metallurgy, composition, and properties of steels and other alloys. It provides information on the atomic structure of metals, the nature of alloy phases, and the mechanisms involved in phase transformations, including time-temperature effects and the role of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Steels contain a wide range of elements, including alloys as well as residual processing impurities. This chapter describes the chemical composition of low-alloy AISI steels, which are classified based on the amounts of chromium, molybdenum, and nickel they contain. It explains why...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Stainless steels derive their name from their corrosion-resisting properties first observed in 1912. Two groups, working independently, concurrently discovered what came to be known as austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. Martensitic and precipitation-hardened stainless steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Tool steels are specialty steels, produced in relatively low volumes, optimized for applications requiring precise combinations of wear resistance, toughness, and hot hardness. This chapter describes the AISI classification system by which tool steels are defined. It discusses primary...