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steelmaking practices

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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 19.8 Influence of sulfur content and steelmaking practice on temperature ranges for overheating and burning. Steelmaking practices are: consumable-electrode vacuum arc remelted (CEVAM), basic-electric (BE), and open-hearth (OH). Source: Ref 19.22 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... steels and discusses the influence of composition, steelmaking practice, and application environment. chemical composition heat treatment high-strength steel stress-corrosion cracking STEELS with yield strengths greater than 1240 MPa (180 ksi), corresponding to hardnesses greater than 40...
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Published: 01 September 2005
Fig. 24 Cleanness and rolling contact fatigue life improvements in carburized steels as steelmaking practices have changed. Source: Ref 57 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... advancements that led from open hearth steelmaking to basic oxygen processes and ultimately the electric arc furnace (EAF). It describes the versatility, efficiency, and scalability of the EAF process and its impact on recycling and sustainability. It explains how EAF refining and deoxidation practices have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter traces the history of steelmaking over three millennia, from the discovery of martensite in a mining tool dating from the twelfth century B.C. to the nineteenth century development of the Bessemer and Siemens processes. It also describes the work of early metallographers who...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... that the refractories contain the melt at the high temperatures experienced, it would be ideal if the refractories were inert and did not react with the molten steel bath. The refractories used strongly influence the type of processing and have given their names to the arc furnace practices in common use, i.e., basic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to elongation during rolling. However, with the development of steelmaking practices that produce very low-sulfur steel, manganese is becoming less important in this role. Fig. 19.15 Manganese sulfides in steel. Source: Ref 6 The 11 xx series of resulfurized steels contain between 0.08 and 0.33...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
.... They bought the Hess Steel company, a defunct steel mill in Baltimore, Maryland, and called their firm the Rustless Iron Company, obviously intending to concentrate on making a low-carbon chromium alloy. The Wild process followed the first two steps of the normal practice described previously. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... in steelmaking and processing methods. Improvements in basic oxygen furnace steelmaking practices, for example, have enabled production of steels with carbon contents in the 0.06 to 0.08% range and allowed alloy additions to be made in small amounts and with predictable and high levels of recovery and accuracy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...). Steelmaking is the important first step in processing and has evolved over centuries to produce today huge tonnages of high-quality steel. Thus steelmaking, its history, and its effect on the structure of solid steel are discussed briefly in subsequent chapters. Microstructure of Steels Size Scales...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... steel products are low-carbon (<0.30 wt% C) steels that are used in the annealed condition. Medium-carbon (0.30 to 0.60 wt% C) and high-carbon (0.60 to 1.00 wt% C) steels are often quenched and tempered to provide higher strengths and hardness. Fig. 1 Principal steps in steelmaking. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... products by primary processing: inclusions and chemical segregation. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during steelmaking and casting, and segregation is a result of chemistry variations produced during dendritic solidification of steels. Such segregation may cause the microstructural...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... of the minimill industry along with the consolidation of the industry into large corporations. The chapter ends by providing information on novel processes developed for making iron. flanged beams flat products minimills railroad rails steelmaking ironmaking There was little change...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... and the Development of Stainless Steel , Ironmaking and Steelmaking , Vol 16 (No. 4 ), The Institute of Metals , London , 1989 , p 253 – 265 Brearley A. , and Brearley H. , Ingots and Ingot Moulds , Longmans , Green and Co ., 1918 Brearley H. , Cutlery, U.S. Patent 1,197,256...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... steelmakers to reduce phosphorus levels in manganese steel to a large extent. The preferred practice is to hold the phosphorus content below 0.04% even though 0.07% is permitted by ASTM A 128. Levels above 0.06%, which formerly were prevalent, contribute to hot shortness and low elongation at very high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... and the development of the Kelly-Bessemer process by Alexander Holley. The chapter then discusses how Andrew Carnegie lowered the cost to produce steel, how he entered the iron and steelmaking industry, and how Captain Billy Jones joined Carnegie to expand Carnegie steel. The chapter further provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... at the annealing temperatures. As discussed in later sections, this effect is used to advantage in steelmaking practice by adding certain elements known as grain refiners (e.g., aluminum, titanium, and vanadium) that form nitrides or carbonitrides with the required characteristics. The larger cementite particles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... of the chromium was lost in the slag during melting. In fact, practically every step of the manufacturing process was different from ordinary steelmaking and usually more difficult. One book that was written some years after the discoveries advised that “melting should be performed with care” and that “forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the principal deoxidizers used in steelmaking. The amount of this element in a steel, which is not always noted in the chemical composition specifications, depends on the deoxidation practice specified for the product. Rimmed and capped steels contain minimal silicon, usually less than 0.05%. Fully killed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a detailed account of the development of tool steel technology. It begins with a record of steelmaking in ancient and medieval times. The crucible melting process involved in making steel is then discussed. This is followed by a description of the increasing use...