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steel refining

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... Stellite Starting the AOD Business Other Steel-Refining Developments The development of the AOD process led to the development of other types of converters. These were important developments, but none became as successful as AOD. The processes included: The sources of chromium for smelting...
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 8.12 (Part 1) Austenitic grain refinement in a coarse-grained 0.5% C hypoeutectoid steel. Austenitic grain size initially as shown in Fig. 8.8 (Part 2) (e) . 0.50C-0.06Si-0.07Mn (wt%). (a) Austenitized at 950 °C for 1 h, cooled at 300 °C/h, one cycle. 180 HV. Picral. 100×. (b More
Image
Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 8.12 (Part 2) Austenitic grain refinement in a coarse-grained 0.5% C hypoeutectoid steel. Austenitic grain size initially as shown in Fig. 8.8 (Part 2) (e) . 0.50C-0.06Si-0.07Mn (wt%). (a) Austenitized at 950 °C for 1 h, cooled at 300 °C/h, one cycle. 180 HV. Picral. 100×. (b More
Image
Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 5.14 Examples of ladle treatments used to refine molten steels. (a) Bottom stirring. (b) Powder injection. (c) Vacuum oxygen decarburization process. (d) Vacuum arc degassing More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... changed over time, and describes secondary refining processes such as degassing, homogenization, rinsing, and remelting. blast furnace electric arc furnace The classical definition of steel is “an iron-carbon alloy with up to [about] 2% carbon” ( Ref 1 ). This limit is taken from the maximum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
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Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 5.3 Relationship between austenitizing parameters and grain size for grain-refined and non-grain-refined AISI 1060 steel. (a) Effect of austenitizing temperature (2 h soak). (b) Effect of austenitizing time. Source: Ref 5 More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 8.9 Control of solidification structure by inoculation. (a, upper) The solidification structure of Al-16%Si alloy; (a, lower) the refinement of primary crystal Si by inoculation of P ( Ref 7 , 8 ). (b, upper) The cast structure of 17Cr stainless steel; (b, lower) the equiaxialization More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on residual elements, microalloying, grain refinement, mechanical properties, and grain size of these steels. In addition, the effects of free-machining additives are also discussed. carbon steel composition grain size hardenability low-alloy steel PLAIN CARBON STEELS are by far...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... carbide or carbonitride-forming elements such as niobium, vanadium, and/or titanium for precipitation strengthening, grain refinement, and possibly transformation temperature control As-rolled pearlitic steels , which may include carbon-manganese steels but which may also have small additions of other...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to refine stainless steel. The chapter also provides information on the classification and composition of stainless steel castings. It concludes with a brief description of the Schaeffler constitution diagram which is useful in predicting the type of stainless steel as a function of its alloy content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter provides a basis for understanding the influence of stainless steel alloy composition and metallurgy on the welding process, which involves complex dynamics associated with melting, refining, and thermal processing. It begins with an overview of the welding characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size We...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... vessels are used to further process the metal for use in demanding applications. The AOD vessel permits easier control, refining, and removal of gases. Many of the operations performed in an AOD vessel may be carried out in a ladle. This is common in the steel industry, and is in the development stage...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... in petroleum refining, where hydrogen attack was observed. It documents the extent of the damage in each case and identifies the source of the hydrogen. coal-fired boilers hydrogen attack 17.1 Introduction Hydrogen attack can result in brittle fracture of a steel component during high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This article discusses the steps in the primary processing of stainless steels: melting, refining, remelting, casting, and hot rolling. It provides information of the major categories of defects in hot rolled stainless steels, namely hot mill defects, inclusion-related defects, and hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... chapters, their significant influence on properties justifies their review. Grain Size For optimal properties, it is essential that the grain size of a carburized and hardened component is both uniform and fine. Generally, the starting point is a grain-refined steel having an ASTM grain size from...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8.69 Micrographs of as-cast steel containing iron sulfide network (a) and globular manganese sulfide (b). No etching. The amount and size of the nonmetallic inclusions shown in this and Fig. 8.68 are almost impossible to find in modern steels produced with current refining processes More
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Published: 01 December 2015
Fig. 8 Illustration of how a refinement in grain size improves resistance to hydrogen failure as measured by the time to failure of two strengths of AISI 4340 steels. Source: Ref 20 More