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steel forgings

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Abstract This article presents six case studies of failures with steel forgings. The case studies covered are crankshaft underfill; tube bending; spade bit; trim tear; upset forging; and avoidance of flow through, lap, and crack. The case studies illustrate difficulties encountered in either...
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 11 Comparison of properties of steel rotor forgings made from ESR and conventionally melted ingots. (a) Impact strength of grade X22CrMoV121. (b) Fracture toughness of grade 30CrMoNiV511. Specimen orientation and location are indicated next to curves. Source: Ref 9 to 11 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.12 W. Nr. 1.4439 austenitic stainless steel, forged, annealed for solubilization, and quenched. Austenite with grain size ASTM 2–4. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16.13 W. Nr. 1.4439 austenitic stainless steel, forged, annealed for solubilization, and quenched. Austenite with grain size ASTM 0–1. Large grain sizes in austenitic stainless steels may lead to yield strength below specified limits and difficulties (or impossibility) in performing More
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Published: 01 January 2015
Fig. 21.2 The effect of flame speed on depth of hardening of a 1050 steel forging. Source: Ref 21.3 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.34 A SEM micrograph of a fracture surface of the 0.7% C-3% Cr steel forging in Fig. 3.33 showing a manganese sulfide dendrite. 2000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 4.15 Macrograph of a steel forging showing flow lines. Etched in three parts water, two parts sulfuric acid, and one part hydrochloric acid. 1.25× More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 14 Gross heat checking in a low-alloy tool steel forging die due to excessive temperature. Heat checking occurred after an undetermined number of 225 kg (500 lb) nickel-base alloy preforms had been forged from an average temperature of 1095 °C (2000 °F). Source: Ref 11 More
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Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 14.18 Preforming, blocking, and finish forging operations for an example steel forging [ Haller, 1971 ] More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.29 Prior austenite grain boundaries in a quenched and tempered MIL-S-23194 composition F-steel forging. Modified Winsteard’s etch. 500× More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... fusion of the surfaces. Surface flaws weaken forgings and can usually be eliminated by correct die design; proper heating; and, correct sequencing and positioning of the workpieces in the dies. Shear cracks often occur in steel forgings; they are diagonal cracks occurring on the trimmed edges...
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Published: 01 August 2005
Fig. 2.97 Photomicrograph of SCC in a sample coming from a steam turbine disk made of A470 class 4 alloy steel forging. Note that the two immediately adjacent cracks exhibit opposite types of fracture: transgranular for the upper crack, intergranular for the lower crack. Source: Ref 2.71 More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.33 A manganese sulfide stringer (dark gray) appearing as a “pearl necklace”-type morphology (see long arrow) at a prior austenite grain boundary in a 0.7% C-3% Cr steel forging exposed to 1170 °C (2500 °F) for 1.5 h. Pearlite (the dark etching constituent) has nucleated on the sulfide More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... forging, high-speed machining, sintering, finishing, and advanced engineering for aerospace, medical, and recreational marketings. Specializing in titanium, stainless steel, cobalt chrome, aluminum G & S Titanium, Inc. 1550 Spruce St. Ext. Wooster, OH 44691 Tel: 800-860-0564 Fax: 330-262-1550...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... the requirements of various forging alloys, the influence of machine operating parameters, and production challenges related to lot tolerances and shape complexity. The chapter also covers the design of finisher dies, the prediction of forging stresses and loads, and the design of preform dies for steel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... or forged. Choice of Mechanical Properties through Heat Treatment Cast steels are available in a wide range of mechanical properties depending upon the composition and heat treatment. Properties within the following ranges can be obtained at normal temperatures: National specifications...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... the dies and the workpiece, which allows time for heat transfer from the hot workpiece to the dies. This reduces die life, particularly when forging high-temperature materials such as steel, titanium, and nickel alloys. Die Design and Materials Metal flow in forging is greatly influenced by part...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.76 Forge weld region of a steel hoe blade. High carbon steel (to the right) welded to low carbon steel (to the left). Region not quenched. Microstructure is pearlite in the right side and ferrite and pearlite in the left side. Etchant: nital. More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.77 Forge weld region of a steel hoe blade. High carbon steel (to the right) welded to low carbon steel (to the left). Quenched region. Martensite and elongated nonmetallic inclusions (to the right) and ferrite, acicular ferrite and martensite (to the left). Etchant: nital. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... hardness may result unless all the decarburization is removed. Typical decarburization limits for steel forgings Table 9.1 Typical decarburization limits for steel forgings Range of section size Typical depth of decarburization mm in. mm in. <25 <1 0.8 0.031 25 to 100 1...