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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the inspection of steel bars for the detection and evaluation of flaws. The principles involved also apply, for the most part, to the inspection of steel wire. The nondestructive inspection methods discussed include magnetic particle inspection, liquid penetrant...
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Published: 01 August 2015
Fig. 10.25 Continuous bar heating: thermal profile of a steel bar as processed through an eight-coil induction line. Source: Ref 11 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 10.10 AISI 4140 steel bar with a cylindrical insert of AISI 8640 steel subjected to austenitization in hydrogen atmosphere at 1120 °C (2050 °F) and isothermally treated at 650 °C (1200 °F). Treatment was sufficiently long to transform the steel AISI 4140 to ferrite and pearlite, followed More
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Published: 01 June 1985
Fig. 5-4. Normal hot rolled steel bar flow lines have been pressed into a forging-die cavity to strengthen the ultimate product. More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.9 Microstructure of a typical dual-phase steel bar consisting of martensite (dark) in a matrix of ferrite (light). 2% nital etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.10 Microstructure of an intercritically annealed AISI/SAE 1010 steel bar consisting of (a) martensite (dark etching constituent) and retained austenite (gray etching constituent) in a matrix of ferrite in bright-field illumination and (b) the same field of view in differential More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.15 Microstructure of an annealed AISI/SAE 1040 steel bar consisting of bands of ferrite (light) and pearlite (dark). Longitudinal section. 2% nital and 4% picral etch. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.17 Microstructure of (a) an as-quenched AISI/SAE 8630 steel bar and (b) a fully spheroidized structure consisting of spheroids of cementite in a matrix of ferrite. 4% picral etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.19 Microstructure (b) of a spheroidized AISI/SAE 8630 steel bar produced from the original banded microstructure shown in (a). 2% nital and 4% picral etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.20 Microstructure of tempered lath martensite in an AISI/SAE 8630 steel bar. 2% nital etch. (a) 500× and (b) 1500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.48 Microstructure of a cold-drawn and spheroidized AISI/SAE 1095 steel bar showing regions of graphite (elongated, dark bands). 4% picral etch. 1000×. Courtesy of S. Lawrence, Bethlehem Steel’s Homer Research Center More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.53 Microstructure of a machined AISI 316 stainless steel bar showing (a) deformation bands at the surface and (b) annealing twins at the center. Electrolytic etch of 10% oxalic acid in water, stainless steel cathode, 6V, 10 s. 200× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.58 Hydrogen flakes (cracks—see arrows) found in an AISI/SAE 1080 steel bar in the (a) unetched and (b) etched condition. 4% picral etch. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 3.60 An internal hydrogen flake (crack) in an AISI/SAE 1080 steel bar that was exposed to a temperature of 870 °C (1600 °F) for 5 h. The crack surface was decarburized (white area surrounding crack) by the reaction of the hydrogen with the carbon in the steel. Pearlite matrix. 4% picral More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 6.19 A SEM secondary electron micrograph of a fractured steel bar. Inclusions can be seen in many of the voids. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 6.27 Preparing a specimen from an AISI/SAE 1335 steel bar for compositional analysis on the electron probe microanalyzer. (a) Vickers microhardness indentations used to mark the location of ferrite banding and (b) the same location with the etch removed by light polishing. 4% picral etch More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 7.6 Microstructure of an as-polished resulfurized AISI/SAE 1144 steel bar showing manganese sulfide inclusions. (a) Longitudinal plane of polish. (b) Transverse plane of polish. Unetched. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 7.7 Microstructure of an as-polished AISI/SAE 1020 steel bar showing aluminum oxide inclusions. Longitudinal plane of polish. Unetched. Courtesy of Samuel Lawrence, Bethlehem Steel, Homer Research Laboratories. 500× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 7.8 Microstructure of a AISI/SAE 1080 steel bar showing titanium nitride inclusions. Arrows indicate light unetched constituent. Longitudinal plane of polish. 4% picral etch. Courtesy of Samuel Lawrence, Bethlehem Steel, Homer Research Laboratories. 1000× More
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 8.34 Free-machining AISI/SAE 1213 steel bar showing ferrite plus pearlite banding, manganese sulfide inclusions, and a ferrite matrix. 4% picral followed by 2% nital etch. 320× More