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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... Abstract Failure analysis can sometimes involve considerations of statistics and probability. This chapter reviews some of the basic types of statistical distributions in order to understand some basic principles in their use. The main focus is on the uses of the normal distribution, which is...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... steps include selecting proper material and design of the part being treated; determining whether the process is capable of heat treatment; using statistical process control, control charting, and in-process inspection and testing; and applying statistical quality control and final testing (sampling) to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... along with an example. The chapter then discusses the purposes of reliability engineering and introduces four basic statistical distribution functions useful in reliability engineering, namely normal, lognormal, exponential, and Weibull. It also provides information on three fundamental acceleration...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... in printed documents. Data often represent available collected, not analyzed, test results. Limited data sources, heats of metal, and testing make typical data the norm for data collections, although some collections provide validated statistical information and could be used to produce design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... destruction of actual parts. The material and section size variables are removed to provide a measurement of actual process variation. Test coupons must be carefully designed to be an effective statistical process control (SPC) tool. They must be properly selected for size, shape, and material that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... variations in thickness from some preset standard and provide a digital readout and a permanent record of results for statistical analysis. The use of measuring systems employing capacitance, electrical contact, or linear displacement transducers are capable of high accuracy and the output can be linked...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... unusual properties that form broad behavioral patterns. Parametric timing failures fall into two classes: (1) intrinsic ICs (free of defects), and (2) extrinsic ICs (presence of defects). Intrinsic ICs can fail due to an unfortunate distribution of circuit statistics and/or environmental conditions. An...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... add a limited amount of cost to production test in order to make yield enhancement more efficient through statistical data collection. Several other areas of data sampling may be added. For example, a limit on the total test time overhead added by the data collection is useful. The data collection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... concept is that the failure analysis team can compare two or more groups of product (one with the suspect cause present, the other without) using the ANOVA technique to determine if the cause makes a difference. ANOVA is a statistical method that evaluates variability using mathematical calculations to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
...; 0.16 in), surface finish, near-net shape, and dimensional capability) Mechanical properties (statistical minimum elongation as a measure of crashworthiness >6%, yield and fatigue strength, and heat treatability) Tooling cost per piece (overall size: annual volume <50,000 pieces, annual...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... statistical variation, especially if the supplier inspected on a sampling (rather than 100%) basis. Finally, the inspection records may show attributes data (e.g., “acceptable” or “pass” notations) instead of recording variables (or numerical) data. This also suggests that the product could be outside allowed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... below. Channel mobility management will play an important role in devices that have less and less atoms in the channel volume. Doping and strain will see a wider statistical variation, so band gap engineering may vary from device to device. For that reason, a contactless characterization of channel band...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... times (in different ways) to improve the coverage of unmodeled defects [47] - [48] . Improved coverage can also be achieved by combining N-detect pattern generation with physically adjacent areas [49] . Another ermerging trend is the use of statistical methods to optimized the testing process [21...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... Change analysis Analytical equipment Mechanical and electronic component failures Leaks Contamination Design analysis Statistical considerations Design of experiments After discussing the aforementioned topics, the last two steps in the four-step problem-solving process are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... Design allowables for composite materials usually assume a normal distribution, although other types of statistical distributions are available and are used. Three types of design allowables are considered: A-basis, B-basis, and S-basis. A-basis and B-basis allowables are calculated using the following...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... statistical distribution with values above and below some characteristic strength. If an element is subjected to some value of stress, there is a certain probability that the local strength of the material will be exceeded. As the number of elements in a chain is increased, the probability that a weak link...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... statistical variation. This may occur, for example, in the case of a mechanical failure if the upper end of the load distribution overlaps the lower end of the strength distribution. Perhaps a change occurred, but the change is unrelated to the failure. When searching for changes that could have induced...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., the National Physical Laboratory (U.K.) experimented with lower test loads in 1932. The first low load Vickers tester was described by Lips and Sack in 1936. Because the shape of the Vickers indentation is geometrically similar at all test loads, the HV value is constant, within statistical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8