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statistical distributions

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
...Abstract Abstract Failure analysis can sometimes involve considerations of statistics and probability. This chapter reviews some of the basic types of statistical distributions in order to understand some basic principles in their use. The main focus is on the uses of the normal distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... design along with an example. The chapter then discusses the purposes of reliability engineering and introduces four basic statistical distribution functions useful in reliability engineering, namely normal, lognormal, exponential, and Weibull. It also provides information on three fundamental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... as sigma (σ). It is defined as the squares of the difference between each measured value and the average value summed over all data points and divided by the number of data points. The square root of the result is the standard deviation. It can be shown that in a normal statistical distribution, 68.3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... chloride. Testing should be conducted after exposure to the various fluids that the composite can be exposed to in service. Design allowables for composite materials usually assume a normal distribution, although other types of statistical distributions are available and are used. Three types of design...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... elements can be considered to have a statistical distribution with values above and below some characteristic strength. If an element is subjected to some value of stress, there is a certain probability that the local strength of the material will be exceeded. As the number of elements in a chain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... Source : From Underwood, Ref. 3. Example of statistical analysis of point-count data Table 6-2 Example of statistical analysis of point-count data Field no. P α P α P 0 × 100 ( P P , i − P ¯ P ) 2 1 5 20 125.44 2 8 32 0.64...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Alloy Plate , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 12 , March 1981 , p 535 – 541 10.1007/BF02648553 17.74 Booth F.F. and Tucker G.E. , Statistical Distribution of Endurance in Electrochemical Stress-Corrosion Tests , Corrosion , Vol 21 ( No. 5 ), 1965 , p 173 – 177 10.5006/0010-9312...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... generated. Data for use in design require statistical significance with a known confidence level. MIL-HDBK-17C provides a guide concerning the number and type of tests sufficient to establish statistically based material properties. MIL-HDBK-17C contains somewhat enhanced statistical treatment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Inspection Typical Equipment Measurement Process Statistical Analysis Control Charts Statistical Summary Report Histograms Other Applications for Computer-Aided Inspection Liquid penetrants will highlight surface defects so that detection is more certain. Liquid penetrant inspection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... for Engineering Research , No. 151, 1939 7.13 Weibull W. , A Statistical Distribution of Wide Applicability , J. Appl. Mech. , Vol 18 , 1951 , p 293 – 297 10.1115/1.4010337 7.14 Manson S.S. , Thermal Stresses and Low-Cycle Fatigue , McGraw-Hill, Inc ., New York , 1966 10.1115...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... test in order to make yield enhancement more efficient through statistical data collection. Several other areas of data sampling may be added. For example, a limit on the total test time overhead added by the data collection is useful. The data collection may be turned off if more than a specified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 580, Risk-Based Inspection, American Petroleum Institute, 2002 16. Health and Safety Executive (UK) HSE research report 016/2002, “ Guidelines for Use of Statistics for Analysis of Sample Inspection of Corrosion ,” 2002 17. BS EN 1714, “ Non-Destructive Examination of Welded Joints...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the basic steps of the powder metallurgy process, including powder manufacture, powder blending, compacting, and sintering. It identifies important powder characteristics such as particle size, size distribution, particle shape, and purity. It compares...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... patterns. Parametric timing failures fall into two classes: (1) intrinsic ICs (free of defects), and (2) extrinsic ICs (presence of defects). Intrinsic ICs can fail due to an unfortunate distribution of circuit statistics and/or environmental conditions. An extrinsic IC may have subtle imperfections...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... of normal statistical variation. This may occur, for example, in the case of a mechanical failure if the upper end of the load distribution overlaps the lower end of the strength distribution. Perhaps a change occurred, but the change is unrelated to the failure. When searching for changes that could...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... energy. These scattering processes result in light emission with a broad spectral distribution in the visible to near IR region. This behaviour is correlated to the statistical occupation of states within one band (holes in valence band or electrons in conduction band) which follows Fermi statistics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... only a lower limit to the actual current density and hence that local corrosion intensities and penetration rates can be much higher. Assuming that a specimen surface undergoing measurement contains at least a statistical distribution of anodic and cathodic sites and that the intersite electrical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... distributed. Both exposed end grain and poor grain flow can be most effectively corrected by redesigning the forging or forging blank, particularly with regard to flash. It is virtually impossible to detect exposed end grain nondestructively; only rarely can poor grain flow be detected nondestructively. Both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.9781627083096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7