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spinodal transformation structures

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... decomposition intermediate phases order-disorder transformation spinodal transformation structures superlattice structures PHASE DIAGRAMS are often quite complex, with a number of different reactions occurring at different compositions and temperatures. In most cases, the appearance of several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Diagrams , Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 2004 • Guy A.G. and Hren J.J. , Elements of Physical Metallurgy , 3rd ed. , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company , 1974 • Para S. , Spinodal Transformation Structures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... martensite phases have different crystal structures and may not be as hard as the body-centered tetragonal (bct) martensite of steel. However, formation of the martensitic structure in nonferrous systems occurs by the same diffusionless transformation as in ferrous systems—that is, by the rapid and concerted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... The nonferrous martensite phases have different crystal structures and may not be as hard as the body-centered tetragonal (bct) martensite of steel. However, formation of the martensitic structure in nonferrous systems occurs by the same diffusionless transformation as in ferrous systems—that is, by the rapid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... reactions are shown in Fig. 16.1 . The reaction occurs when the initial phase composition (e.g., α 0 , β 0 , or I 0 ) transforms into a two-phase product that includes a new phase, or precipitate. The precipitate phase may differ in crystal structure, composition, and/or degree of long-range order from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
...] Obtain an approximation that expresses a mutual solubility when A and B have different crystal structures. [Answer] When free energy of α phase and β phase are approximated by the regular solution model, the equilibrium equations of both phases are expressed as (see Eq 3.43 ): (Eq 4.28...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and above that for martensite formation until transformation to an essentially bainitic structure is complete. austenite. Generally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in a face-centered cubic polymorph of iron (gamma iron). Speci cally, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... describe it in terms of its crystal structure, the binding forces between the atoms, and so on, imagining a diamond or fullerene structure ( Fig. 1.1a ). Engineers or researchers who are more concerned with applications of carbon may discuss it in terms of the strength of its microstructure, imaging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... Figure 23.1 shows the iron-chromium equilibrium phase diagram. As in the iron-carbon system, the allotropic forms of iron constitute the iron end of the diagram. Chromium is an element that stabilizes the body-centered cubic (bcc) ferrite structure of iron; therefore, with increasing chromium content...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the system is reduced, such as in the case for spinodal decomposition, which was covered in Chapter 4, “Introduction to Phase Transformations,” in this book. What is important is that the free energy of the system is reduced during diffusion. Fig. 5.1 Free-energy changes during diffusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... ( Fig. 6.1 ). Fig. 6.1 Brownian motion and diffusion. Both are transport phenomena according to thermal vibration of atoms or molecules. Most of the microscopic structures of materials are formed by “diffusion.” Therefore, it is no exaggeration to say that phase diagrams are equivalent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.9781627083577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... These alloys were only ferritic at room temperature if they were given a subcritical anneal to transform austenite to ferrite. Otherwise, at room temperature they would be ferrite plus martensite. There are alloys that are intended to use a mixed ferrite/martensite structure, but they are treated later...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...), pure iron changes from a ferritic body-centered cubic (bcc) structure (α) to an austenitic face-centered cubic (fcc) structure (γ). As chromium content increases, the ferrite-to-austenite transformation temperature at first drops slightly, but at approximately 7% Cr, it increases rapidly and completes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... that maximum transformation to martensite occurs. If this has not happened, then subsequent post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) immediately after welding may be ineffective, for two reasons. First, the partially austenitic structure will retain hydrogen, which can lead to hydrogen cracking problems upon eventual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... to localized corrosion is compromised also. Fig. 8 Kinetics of ( formation Figure 9 shows the TTT (time-temperature-transformation) diagram for various high-alloy stainless steel, including austenitic, ferritic, and duplex. Alloys of all structures, ferritic, austenitic, and duplex, with high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.9781627082860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... structure, their physical properties are similar to those of the pure metal. Alloying generally serves to impart higher strength, thermal stability, or other mechanical attributes, while retaining sufficient electrical conductivity for the intended use. Typical applications for high-copper alloys include...