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spheroidization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract A spheroidized structure, which consists of spherically shaped cementite in a matrix of ferrite, is often desired in the production of steel, whether to improve properties, such as machinability and ductility, or accommodate subsequent hardening treatments. This chapter discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes heat treatments that produce uniform grain structures, reduce residual stresses, and improve ductility and machinability. It also discusses spheroidizing treatments that improve strength and toughness by promoting dispersions of spherical carbides in a ferrite matrix...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... various steels respond to heat treatments, such as annealing, normalizing, spheroidizing, tempering, and direct and interrupted quenching, and surface-hardening processes, such as flame and induction hardening, carburizing, nitriding, and carbonitriding. It also addresses the issue of temper embrittlement...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how various...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite in gray iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...- and fine-grained steels. The chapter also discusses grain-refinement processes and some of the effects of overheating, including sulfide spheroidization, grain-boundary sulfide precipitation, and grain-boundary liquation. austenitization carbon steel grain boundary grain growth grain size We...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., properties, and performance. It includes images of elongated and equiaxed structures, primary alpha, transformed beta, and metastable phases as well as spheroidal and intergranular beta, alpha case, and intermetallic compounds. It also defines important terms and provides step-by-step procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., formability, and machinability. This chapter discusses various heat treatment processes, namely annealing, stress relieving, normalizing, spheroidizing, and hardening by austenitizing, quenching and tempering. It also discusses two types of interrupted quenching processes: martempering and austempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... the various phases. The chapter concludes with a brief review of spheroidized microstructures. electron microscopes grain structure heat treatment microstructure optical microscopes steel THE OPTICAL MICROSCOPE is the principal tool used to characterize the internal grain structure of steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
.... Spheroidizing Consists of controlled heating and cooling to produce a spheroid or globular form of carbide in the steel. Finish annealing A low-temperature (approximately 510 °C, or 950 °F) heat treatment that is applied to cold-worked steel having a low- to medium-carbon content. Isothermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... of networks, as a dispersion of particles or spheroids, as large chunky particles, or as surface films. The forms are determined by the chemical composition of the steel, the heat treating schedule, and, obviously, the carbon content. For most applications involving case-hardened parts, an effort is made...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...   0.15–1.2   0.02–0.2   0.02–0.2 bal Source: Ref 5 Table 24.2 Cast iron classifications Commercial designation Carbon-rich phase Matrix (a) Fracture Final structure after Gray iron Lamellar graphite P Gray Solidification Ductile iron Spheroidal graphite F, P...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... to a degraded structure with ferrite plus carbide, as shown in Fig. 6.26 . Fig. 6.26 Microstructural evolution during high-temperature creep damage: (a) initial ferrite plus pearlite, (b) in situ spheroidized carbide, (c) grain boundary carbides, (d) creep voids This microstructural change...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... Metallography of the outer ring showed tempered martensitic structure, tempered in the region around 600 °C (1110 °F), with spheroidal carbides ( Fig. CH14.3 ), while that of the inner ring and the balls revealed fine and coarse pearlite, with carbide dispersion ( Fig. CH14.4 , CH14.5 ). No other material...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... that by keeping the sulfur and phosphorus levels low and adding very small amounts of a key chemical element, the shape of the graphite could be changed from the interconnected flakes of gray irons into isolated spheres (usually called spheroids) of graphite. (Ductile cast iron is also called nodular cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
....) or chemical composition (CuAl 2 , Mg 2 Si, TiN, etc.), and phase mixtures (eutectics, eutectoids, etc.) are described by such terms as lamellar, rod , and spheroidal , which allude to the prominent growth mode to provide a general description of morphology. The single exception to this kind...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Fig. 10.18 Hyper-eutectoid steel spheroidized and normalized. Cementite globules in a ferritic matrix. The austenitizing cycle in the normalizing treatment was not sufficient to completely dissolve the globular cementite. Etchant: nital. Fig. 10.19 Longitudinal cross section of a thick...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... of their presence increases as the solute segregation of the ingot increases. Microstructural phase morphology can vary widely, for example, script versus blocky carbides, cuboidal versus spheroidal γ′, cellular versus uniform precipitation, acicular versus blocky σ, and discrete γ′ versus γ′ envelopes (films...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...: A: Weld region B: Extreme boundary of the fully austenitized zone C: Extreme boundary of the partly austenitized zone D: Extreme boundary of the spheroidized zone. An example of a drawing of this nature for a fusion weld is given in Fig. 11.1 . The terminology used to identify various...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of properties (such as ductility, formability, and machinability). Annealing treatments have various metallurgical purposes such as stress relief, recrystallization, and spheroidization ( Fig. 9.24 ). The figure also includes the temperature regions for the normalizing of steels, which is a heat...