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spheroidal graphite

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... austenitizing contributes to the production of spheroidal transformation products and why secondary graphitization sometimes occurs. cementite graphitization pearlite plastic deformation spheroidization A spheroidized structure , which consists of approximately spherical particles of cementite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Solidification Ductile iron Spheroidal graphite F, P, A Silver-gray Solidification or heat treatment Compacted graphite iron Compacted (vermicular) graphite F, P Gray Solidification White iron Fe 3 C P, M White Solidification and heat treatment (b) Malleable iron Temper graphite F, P...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Spheroidal Graphite Iron Castings ,” JIS G 5503:1995, Japanese Standards Association 10.11 “ Founding. Austempered Ductile Cast Irons ,” BS EN 1564:1997, Oct 1997 10.12 Bradley W.L. and Srinivasan M.N. , Fracture and Fracture Toughness of Cast Irons , Int. Mater. Rev ., Vol 35...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...% picral. 250× Fig. 1.28 Micrograph of a malleable cast iron showing a microstructure consisting of ferrite (light etching constituent) and temper carbon (dark gray irregular-shaped constituent). Etched in 2% nital. 200× Fig. 1.29 Typical graphite shapes after ASTM A 247. I, spheroidal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... spheroidal graphite in an annealed ferrite matrix. 100×. Source: Ref 3 Abstract Abstract This chapter is a detailed account of heat treating techniques for cast irons (gray and ductile), providing the reader with a basic understanding of the differences among various types of cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... lamellae is 7.4%. Fig. 5.12 Microstructure of a gray cast iron showing flake graphite. Transverse section etched with nital. Source: Ref 5.6 Many eutectic microstructures can be classified as lamellar or fibrous, but there is an important exception, namely, spheroidal graphite cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... , p 23 – 48 , 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023 16. Samuels L.E. , Spheroidization and Graphitization . Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels , ASM International , 1999 , p 173 – 174 , 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560165 17. Haimbaugh R.L. , Decarburization and Defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
..., rosette graphite, exploded graphite, malformed graphite, vermicular graphite, nodular graphite, spheroidal graphite, spherulitic graphite , and interdendritic graphite . Additionally, ASTM specification A 247–67 (1972) recognizes five different distributions (A to E), seven different forms (I to VII...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., and nonmetallic inclusions. Etchant: picral. Fig. 17.52 Gray cast iron. Graphite and steadite in a ferritic matrix. Etchant: picral. Fig. 17.53 Chilled cast iron. Mottled region. Partially spheroidized pearlite, cementite, and phosphorus-rich eutectic. The region presenting a dotted feature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Dendrites, Iowa State University , private communication 9. Ruxanda R. , Beltran-Sanchez L. , Massone J. , and Stefanescu D.M. , On the eutectic Solidification of Spheroidal Graphite Iron—An Experimental and Mathematical Modeling Approach , Proceedings of Cast Iron Division, AFS...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... that by keeping the sulfur and phosphorus levels low and adding very small amounts of a key chemical element, the shape of the graphite could be changed from the interconnected flakes of gray irons into isolated spheres (usually called spheroids) of graphite. (Ductile cast iron is also called nodular cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... surface Fig. 6.44 (a) Graphite nodules in as-polished (unetched) sample, 100 ×; (b) fine, banded ferrite-pearlite structure of the core with graphite nodules, 400×; (c) microstructure at the edge consisting of completely spheroidized structure with intergranular cracks and graphite nodules, 400...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... a microcrack at the center of the micrograph (see arrow) in a martensite plate. 12% sodium metabisulfite tint etch. 1000× Fig. 3.48 Microstructure of a cold-drawn and spheroidized AISI/SAE 1095 steel bar showing regions of graphite (elongated, dark bands). 4% picral etch. 1000×. Courtesy of S...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... are pearlite. Source: Ref 7.6 If the sulfur content is kept very low, and magnesium or cerium is added to the melt just before casting, the graphite will form as spheroids. The resulting product is called ductile cast iron. Figure 7.12 shows a typical microstructure. The mechanical behavior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... drawn 625 91 530 77 12 35 179 Annealed, cold drawn 585 85 505 73 12 45 170 Spheroidized annealed, cold drawn 650 94 500 72.5 10 40 192 1117 Hot rolled 425 62 235 34 23 47 121 Cold drawn 475 69 400 58 15 40 137 1118 Hot rolled 450 65 250 36 23 47...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the lower critical temperature (Ac 1 ). In fact, heat treatments are used to accelerate this process (see “ Spheroidizing ” in section 9.5 in this chapter). Cementite (Fe 3 C) is also metastable, because the carbon ultimately decomposes to graphite. Graphitization is a microstructural change...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... , On the Relation of Hardness and Microstructure of Tempered and Spheroidized Carbon Steels , Metall. Trans. , Vol 5 , 1974 , p 1649 – 1653 10.1007/BF02646338 13.11 Samuels L.E. , Spheroidization and Graphitization, Chapter 7 in Light Microscopy of Carbon Steels , ASM International , 1999 , p...