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spectrometers

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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 5.16 Schematic of a spark emission spectrometer. Source: Ref 5.11 More
Image
Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 5.17 Schematic of flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Source: Ref 5.13 More
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Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 2 Schematic of x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. X-rays emitted from the sample are analyzed to determine the characteristic energies or wavelengths of x-rays emitted and the intensities of the various characteristic energies. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 7 Schematic of optical emission spectrometer. Light emitted from the vaporized and excited portion of the sample are analyzed to determine the characteristic wavelengths of light emitted and the intensities of the various characteristic wavelengths. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 12 Block diagram of a typical x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectrometer. UHV, ultrahigh vacuum More
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Published: 01 November 2019
Figure 1 An illustration of a transmission electron microscope showing physical location of sample, imaging plane, energy dispersive spectrometer and electron energy loss spectrometer (E is in incident electron energy and ΔE is the energy loss because of inelastic scattering by various More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Such problems sometimes can be overcome by using wavelength dispersive spectrometers, rather than energy dispersive detectors, or by using optical emission spectroscopy. Operating Principles Physical Basis The negatively charged electrons surrounding each atom’s nucleus exist in discrete energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... spectrometer and ion beam developments. The rapid development enabling both the creation and improvement of primary ion sources (what some have termed a “FIB renaissance” [27] ) has further expanded the application for and construction of various FIB based mass spectrometers with different specializations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of a spark emission spectrometer. Source: Ref 5.11 The positions (in terms of the wavelength) and intensities of the lines produced are compared with the lines produced by suitable standard samples of known composition. By proper calibration it is possible to obtain the concentration of different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., energy dispersive spectrometer and electron energy loss spectrometer (E is in incident electron energy and ΔE is the energy loss because of inelastic scattering by various elements in the sample). A TEM sample containing the defect site must be prepared for successful TEM analysis. The sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... microanalysis (EPMA) is a materials analysis technique that can be bundled with an SEM. Instead of relying on x-ray energy (as in the EDAX approach), EPMA uses a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer that is approximately an order of magnitude better than EDAX at detecting elemental peaks. That fact...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... to obtain the x-ray spectrum from that point. Two types of x-ray detectors are used: wavelength-dispersive spectrometers and energy-dispersive spectrometers. Most SEMs are currently being equipped with energy-dispersive detectors. In contrast, the wavelength-dispersive detectors are large and slow. Because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and these are characteristic of the chemical elements present in the specimen. Thus, with an x-ray spectrometer used in conjunction with a SEM, in situ chemical analysis can be carried out. This facility is very useful in failure analysis. For example, nonmetallic inclusions are deleterious in metal components. Cracks can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... based on the operating frequency of the spectrometer. Solid-State NMR Solid-state NMR can be used to determine the structure of solid polymers ( Ref 10 – 12 ). It differs from solution NMR in instrumentation and techniques because, with solids, problems that are associated with spectral...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... with which the results are needed. A variety of spectrometers and other analytical equipment is available for use in the steel casting industry. Hydrogen and nitrogen levels are also of interest to some manufacturers and are monitored for some cast steel grades ( Figure 17-13 ). Fig. 17-13 Nitrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... the chemical components of the phases is measured) is used to determine the chemical composition of individual phases ( Ref 3 , 4 ). However, because the diameter of the x-ray beams used to excite the characteristic x-rays in x-ray spectrometers is generally much larger than the crystal particles within...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... Membranes from Directly Synthesized Zeolite Nanosheets, Nature, Vol 543, 2017, p 690 694. httpsdoi.org/10.1038/nature21421 5. D.B. Williams and C.B. Carter, Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometers, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Plenum Publishing, 1996, p 637 651 6. D.W. Pashley and M.J. Stowell, Electron...