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spectral method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the historical development of SAM for integrated circuit package inspection, SAM theory, and analysis considerations. Case studies are presented to illustrate the practical applications of SAM. Other non-destructive imaging tools are briefly discussed, as well as SAM challenges and methods including spectral...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... securely enough to the steel that it is at the same temperature as the steel surface being imaged in the pyrometer. A third method is to use a two-color pyrometer. The two-color pyrometer measures the spectral radiancy at two specific wavelengths, λ 1 and λ 2 , and then determines the ratio, R λ 1 / R...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article presents a general overview of outdoor weather aging factors, their effects on plastic materials, and the accelerated test methods that can be used to estimate the reaction of a plastic component during actual use. Weather and radiation factors that contribute...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., sensitivity, and spectral range of the detectors. The article also discusses the value and application of spectral information in the PE signal. It describes state of the art IC technologies. Finally, the article discusses the applications of PE in ICs and also I/O devices, integrated bipolar transistors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., thermogravimetric analysis, thermomechanical analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis. The article also discusses various analytical methods used to characterize the molecular weight distribution of a polymeric material. It provides information on a wide range of mechanical tests that are available to evaluate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... are a function of the material and fabrication method. Gloss and color also are affected by the base material and are measured as optical properties. Polymers differ from many other optical materials in the degree to which their properties change with wavelength, temperature, and moisture, and no optical testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... blackbodies at the same temperature emitted radiation with the same spectral distribution, regardless of their composition. The spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by a blackbody is known as the spectral radiancy, R T ( ν ), where ν is the frequency of the radiation. The quantity R T ( ν...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in terms of spectral range and measurement time [8] , [9] . In opposite to the phase shift analysis, other approaches perform LIT measurements under the variation of the focusing and analyze the observed hot-spot diameters for deriving the axial defect location [12] . The current chapter describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Abstract This chapter discusses the selection, use, and integration of methods to control process variables in induction heating, including control of workpiece and processing temperature and materials handling systems. The discussion of temperature control includes a review of proportional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... pertinent to structure analysis. This is followed by a review of the characterization of plastics by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The article then provides information on the distribution of molecular weight of an engineering plastic. It further discusses the methods used in thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract This chapter addresses in-service monitoring and corrosion testing of weldments. Three categories of corrosion monitoring are discussed: direct testing of coupons, electrochemical techniques, and nondestructive testing techniques. The majority of the test methods for evaluating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... into the container. Dail et al. ( Ref 23 ) examined the emissivity features of the linear spectral ratio (LSR) method and evaluated other forms of dual wavelength emissivity compensation. This method was applied on three different alloys, 1100, 5052, and 7075, under different surface conditions. Mester et al...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses radiography methods using x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons. It begins with a discussion on the applications and principles of radiography followed by sections providing information on the sources of radiation, classifications, and characteristics of x-ray tubes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Young’s modulus as a function of temperature below 300 K (27 °C). Source: Killpatrick Precision elastic limit (PEL), 0.01% offset yield strength, and Young’s modulus for the S-200F material are listed in Table 4.4 . The PEL determination followed the Materials Advisory Board specification method...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... between amplitude and optical-phase features and how they are revealed using appropriate illumination methods. It compares images obtained using bright field and dark field illumination, polarized and cross-polarized light, and interference-contrast techniques. It also discusses the use of photometers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article covers common techniques for surface characterization, including the modern scanning electron microscopy and methods for the chemical characterization of surfaces by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract There are several analytical methods available that can be used in-line on whole wafers as well as off-line on de-processed products that are returned from the field. These techniques are surface analytical techniques that can be used to characterize the bulk of the material. The main...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of interaction are encountered between the AFM tip and the surface being scanned. A representation of these forces is shown in Fig. 3 . Each scanning method has its advantages and disadvantages, described below. Figure 3 Forces of interaction encountered in the three primary modes of AFM scanning. (Image...
Book Chapter

By A. F. Clark
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
...Methods of measurement of thermal expansion at low temperatures. Table 3.1 Methods of measurement of thermal expansion at low temperatures. Method Sensitivity (m) Accuracy (%) Temperature Range (K) Major Advantages Major Disadvantages Mechanical 10 –6 10 –3 4–3000...