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specimen replication

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... describes the steps involved in replicating part surfaces. etchants etching metallographic replication microscopic examination sample preparation Several techniques are used to observe the structure of steels and cast irons in the microscopic scale. For many of these techniques, sampling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... in microfractography has become less frequent since the advent of SEM. A failed specimen cannot be directly placed for study in a TEM because bulk metals are not transparent to electrons. A plastic replica of the fracture surface is prepared. Replication is usually done in two stages. A replicating tape made...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Fig. 5.17 Types of erosion tests Fig. 5.18 Common erosion tests Fig. 5.20 Test specimen configurations for wear testing Fig. 5.21 Stages of adhesive wear Fig. 5.22 Type 440C stainless steel shaft (57 HRC) versus a zirconia (PSZ) roller produced oxidative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... factors in determining initiation sites of SCC. See text for details. Source: Ref 17.68 Careful examination of this specimen and replicate specimens revealed small crevice corrosion pits under the wall that initiated SCC in an almost smooth surface. Even if these small pits had been as sharp...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... the property variability. The mechanical properties of cast alloys are also sensitive to the cross section of the part, because it has a strong effect on cooling rate and therefore on microstructure. Care must be taken to design parts using cast-alloy properties derived from specimens that are representative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...) Actual furnace atmosphere was 91.8 vol% DA + 8.2 vol% N 2 . (d) Followed by a hold at 1150 °C (2100 °F) for 10 min Example of corrosion rating chart for a set of six replicate specimens of sinstered 316L stainless steel Table 9.2 Example of corrosion rating chart for a set of six replicate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... A.2 Optical (light) microscopy Examination of small region or area of either unprepared or polished and normally etched surface at magnification of 25 to 1000×. Normally examination is of a sample cut from the bulk, but on-site examination and replication techniques are possible. Surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... should be described. In principle, this description should enable the replication of the reported results. Thus, all data related to sampling, sample preparation, test method, etc. should be clearly described. Similarly, if there is any relevant information that the reader may be unaware of, this should...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.9781627083409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Aluminum Alloy Products Using Breaking Load Method Procedure for evaluating SCC resistance of 2 xxx and 7 xxx alloys which uses residual strength as the measure of damage evolution. Describes specimen type and replication, test environment, stress levels, exposure periods, final strength determination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., it is essential that these input values are determined using (a) reliable material tests and (b) accurate evaluation methods. A test used to determine material properties should replicate processing conditions that exist in practical applications. A common method for the determination of the flow stress data...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... specimen ( Fig. 3.1 ). The engineering stress, σ, used in the stress-strain curve depicted in Fig. 3.2 is the average or nominal longitudinal stress in the tensile specimen. It is obtained by dividing the load, F , by the original area of the cross section of the specimen, A 0 : (Eq 3.2) σ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... to product of the minimum refractive index of the lens and any material between the lens and specimen and the sine of the half-angle of the most oblique light rays entering the front lens of the objective. Figure 4-6 Cross sections of Leitz piano-type objectives. (Courtesy of E. Leitz, Inc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., preservation, and/or cleaning of specimens (and comparison with parts that have not failed) Macroscopic examination and analysis and photographic documentation (fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, and other surface phenomena) Microscopic examination and analysis (electron microscopy may be necessary...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... by SEM [1] if a replica can also be made of the surface topography using a very thin material that can interact with the electron beam. Figure 10.8 shows one technique for creating such a replica. The surface of the specimen is covered with a plastic replicating material, typically cellulose acetate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the purposes of corrosion tests, the logical steps in a test program, and the preparation and cleaning of test specimens. The focus then moves on to discuss the types and applications of these test categories and the associated evaluation procedures. Excluding electrochemical tests which are addressed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... Fig. 14 Micrograph, original magnification at 200×, of a transverse section from a specimen of austenitic stainless steel, showing a branching, transgranular stress-corrosion crack Fig. 15 Fracture surface of a high-strength steel part that failed from stress corrosion, showing progression...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... disulfide (MoS 2 ), and polyimide containing carbon; this suggests that slippery plastics do well under three-body abrasion conditions. It may be that abrasive particles freely slide through the rubber wheel/specimen contact with slippery plastics. Figure 11.7 shows two-body abrasion with a somewhat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0